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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project participants according to incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up

No diabetesIncident diabetesP
n (%) 406 (82.5) 86 (17.5)  
Age (years)* 25.4 ± 13.0 31.5 ± 12.4 <0.001 
Sex (male/female) 173/233 (42.6/57.4) 34/52 (39.5/60.5) 0.60 
Anthropometry*    
    Height (cm) 165.3 ± 10.4 166.8 ± 9.1 0.16 
    Weight (kg) 69.8 ± 18.1 82.0 ± 15.9 <0.001 
    BMI (kg/m225.4 ± 5.5 29.4 ± 5.3 <0.001 
    Percent body fat (%) 33.0 ± 13.2 40.1 ± 10.3 <0.001 
    Waist circumference (cm) 94.4 ± 14.1 104.7 ± 12.1 <0.001 
Blood pressure    
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 113.0 (103.5–120.0) 118.0 (110.0–130.0) <0.001 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 64.0 ± 11.5 69.9 ± 12.3 <0.001 
    Hypertension§ 54 (13.3) 29 (33.7) <0.001 
    Lipid profile    
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 1.26 ± 0.28 1.19 ± 0.25 0.02 
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 2.42 ± 0.74 2.74 ± 0.66 <0.001 
    Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.10 (0.81–1.53) 1.48 (1.16–1.82) <0.001 
Glucose homeostasis    
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)* 5.3 ± 0.46 5.6 ± 0.58 <0.001 
    2-h glucose (mmol/l)* 5.4 ± 1.62 6.5 ± 2.08 <0.001 
    Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 94 (66–131) 123 (91–187) <0.001 
    IGT 36 (8.9) 23 (26.7) <0.001 
    Impaired fasting glucose 22 (5.4) 10 (11.6) 0.005 
Adipokines    
    CRP (mg/l) 1.45 (0.40–4.28) 2.82 (1.24–7.48) <0.001 
    IL-6 (ng/l) 0.67 (0.33–1.23) 0.83 (0.52–1.38) 0.01 
    Serum amyloid A (mg/l) 7.04 (4.43–11.1) 8.61 (5.52–14.5) 0.03 
    Leptin (ng/ml) 10.6 (5.20–19.4) 15.0 (9.40–25.7) <0.001 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 14.5 (11.0–19.6) 11.0 (8.01–15.1) <0.001 
    Adiponectin-to-leptin ratio 1.36 (0.65–3.25) 0.73 (0.36–1.44) <0.001 
No diabetesIncident diabetesP
n (%) 406 (82.5) 86 (17.5)  
Age (years)* 25.4 ± 13.0 31.5 ± 12.4 <0.001 
Sex (male/female) 173/233 (42.6/57.4) 34/52 (39.5/60.5) 0.60 
Anthropometry*    
    Height (cm) 165.3 ± 10.4 166.8 ± 9.1 0.16 
    Weight (kg) 69.8 ± 18.1 82.0 ± 15.9 <0.001 
    BMI (kg/m225.4 ± 5.5 29.4 ± 5.3 <0.001 
    Percent body fat (%) 33.0 ± 13.2 40.1 ± 10.3 <0.001 
    Waist circumference (cm) 94.4 ± 14.1 104.7 ± 12.1 <0.001 
Blood pressure    
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 113.0 (103.5–120.0) 118.0 (110.0–130.0) <0.001 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)* 64.0 ± 11.5 69.9 ± 12.3 <0.001 
    Hypertension§ 54 (13.3) 29 (33.7) <0.001 
    Lipid profile    
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 1.26 ± 0.28 1.19 ± 0.25 0.02 
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)* 2.42 ± 0.74 2.74 ± 0.66 <0.001 
    Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.10 (0.81–1.53) 1.48 (1.16–1.82) <0.001 
Glucose homeostasis    
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)* 5.3 ± 0.46 5.6 ± 0.58 <0.001 
    2-h glucose (mmol/l)* 5.4 ± 1.62 6.5 ± 2.08 <0.001 
    Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 94 (66–131) 123 (91–187) <0.001 
    IGT 36 (8.9) 23 (26.7) <0.001 
    Impaired fasting glucose 22 (5.4) 10 (11.6) 0.005 
Adipokines    
    CRP (mg/l) 1.45 (0.40–4.28) 2.82 (1.24–7.48) <0.001 
    IL-6 (ng/l) 0.67 (0.33–1.23) 0.83 (0.52–1.38) 0.01 
    Serum amyloid A (mg/l) 7.04 (4.43–11.1) 8.61 (5.52–14.5) 0.03 
    Leptin (ng/ml) 10.6 (5.20–19.4) 15.0 (9.40–25.7) <0.001 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 14.5 (11.0–19.6) 11.0 (8.01–15.1) <0.001 
    Adiponectin-to-leptin ratio 1.36 (0.65–3.25) 0.73 (0.36–1.44) <0.001 

Data are n (%), mean ± SD, and median (25th–75th percentile). Number of subjects (n) for each characteristic varies slightly due to occasional missing values.

*

Welch's t test performed.

χ2 test performed.

Welch's t test performed on log transformation.

§

Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive medication therapy.

IGT is defined as fasting plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l and 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 and <11.1 mmol/l.

Impaired fasting glucose is defined as fasting plasma glucose 6.1–6.9 mmol/l and 2-h postload glucose <7.8 mmol/l.

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