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Table 2—

Age and multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident type 2 diabetes according to quintile of cumulative averaged intake of fruit and vegetables

Cumulative averaged intake of fruit and vegetables
Ptrend3 servings/day and 1 serving/day increase in intake*Median intake (quintile 1, 5) servings/day
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Vegetables         
    n 845 877 930 976 901    
    Person-years 233,945 247,049 249,343 246,076 227,581    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 0.13 1.06 (0.98–1.13) 3.09 (1.61, 5.40) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.92 1.00 (0.92–1.08)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.05 (0.94–1.16) 0.22 1.04 (0.97–1.13)  
Fruit         
    n 862 988 948 914 817    
    Person-years 237,964 249,649 247,769 241,595 227,017    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.97 (0.88–1.06) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.003 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 1.08 (0.46, 2.64) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.94 (0.86–1.04) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.81 (0.73–0.91) <0.001 0.74 (0.65–0.84)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.04 (0.94–1.14) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 0.008 0.82 (0.72–0.94)  
Fruit and vegetables         
    n 870 900 945 924 890    
    Person-years 237,727 248,219 247,926 244,157 225,964    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.97 (0.88–1.07) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.91 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 4.47 (2.35, 7.66) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 0.95 (0.87–1.05) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 0.92 (0.82–1.02) 0.06 0.95 (0.90–1.00)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.99 (0.89–1.09) 1.01 (0.90–1.12) 0.99 0.99 (0.94–1.05)  
Fruit juices         
    n 749 946 1032 920 882    
    Person-years 239,408 241,268 250,260 241,633 231,425    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.21 (1.10–1.34) 1.28 (1.17–1.41) 1.17 (1.06–1.28) 1.17 (1.06–1.29) 0.10 1.05 (0.99–1.12) 0.54 (0.04, 1.33) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.20 (1.09–1.32) 1.28 (1.16–1.40) 1.25 (1.13–1.38) 1.33 (1.20–1.48) <0.001 1.17 (1.10–1.25)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.21 (1.10–1.33) 1.29 (1.17–1.42) 1.25 (1.14–1.38) 1.35 (1.22–1.50) <0.001 1.18 (1.10–1.26)  
Legumes         
    n 825 874 951 968 911    
    Person-years 248,849 216,815 248,202 259,566 230,563    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 1.08 (0.99–1.19) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 0.11 1.20 (0.96, 1.50) 0.17 (0.07, 0.45) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.13 (1.03–1.25) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 0.40 1.11 (0.87–1.40)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.13 (1.02–1.24) 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 0.09 1.23 (0.97–1.56)  
Green leafy vegetables         
    n 921 957 995 837 819    
    Person-years 223,958 239,419 256,196 241,036 243,385    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 0.78 (0.71–0.86) <0.001 0.80 (0.75–0.86) 0.72 (0.25, 1.48) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.99 (0.90–1.08) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.87 (0.78–0.96) <0.001 0.88 (0.82–0.95)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.02 (0.93–1.11) 0.93 (0.85–1.03) 0.90 (0.82–1.00) 0.010 0.91 (0.84–0.98)  
Cumulative averaged intake of fruit and vegetables
Ptrend3 servings/day and 1 serving/day increase in intake*Median intake (quintile 1, 5) servings/day
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Vegetables         
    n 845 877 930 976 901    
    Person-years 233,945 247,049 249,343 246,076 227,581    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1.04 (0.95–1.15) 0.13 1.06 (0.98–1.13) 3.09 (1.61, 5.40) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.92 1.00 (0.92–1.08)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.05 (0.94–1.16) 0.22 1.04 (0.97–1.13)  
Fruit         
    n 862 988 948 914 817    
    Person-years 237,964 249,649 247,769 241,595 227,017    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.97 (0.88–1.06) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.003 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 1.08 (0.46, 2.64) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 0.94 (0.86–1.04) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.81 (0.73–0.91) <0.001 0.74 (0.65–0.84)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.04 (0.94–1.14) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.96 (0.86–1.06) 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 0.008 0.82 (0.72–0.94)  
Fruit and vegetables         
    n 870 900 945 924 890    
    Person-years 237,727 248,219 247,926 244,157 225,964    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.97 (0.88–1.07) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.91 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 4.47 (2.35, 7.66) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 0.95 (0.87–1.05) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 0.92 (0.82–1.02) 0.06 0.95 (0.90–1.00)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.01 (0.92–1.11) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.99 (0.89–1.09) 1.01 (0.90–1.12) 0.99 0.99 (0.94–1.05)  
Fruit juices         
    n 749 946 1032 920 882    
    Person-years 239,408 241,268 250,260 241,633 231,425    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.21 (1.10–1.34) 1.28 (1.17–1.41) 1.17 (1.06–1.28) 1.17 (1.06–1.29) 0.10 1.05 (0.99–1.12) 0.54 (0.04, 1.33) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.20 (1.09–1.32) 1.28 (1.16–1.40) 1.25 (1.13–1.38) 1.33 (1.20–1.48) <0.001 1.17 (1.10–1.25)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.21 (1.10–1.33) 1.29 (1.17–1.42) 1.25 (1.14–1.38) 1.35 (1.22–1.50) <0.001 1.18 (1.10–1.26)  
Legumes         
    n 825 874 951 968 911    
    Person-years 248,849 216,815 248,202 259,566 230,563    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 1.08 (0.99–1.19) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 0.11 1.20 (0.96, 1.50) 0.17 (0.07, 0.45) 
    Model 1 1.00 1.13 (1.03–1.25) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.09 (0.99–1.21) 0.40 1.11 (0.87–1.40)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.13 (1.02–1.24) 1.14 (1.03–1.25) 0.09 1.23 (0.97–1.56)  
Green leafy vegetables         
    n 921 957 995 837 819    
    Person-years 223,958 239,419 256,196 241,036 243,385    
    Age-adjusted 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.81 (0.74–0.89) 0.78 (0.71–0.86) <0.001 0.80 (0.75–0.86) 0.72 (0.25, 1.48) 
    Model 1 1.00 0.99 (0.90–1.08) 0.99 (0.90–1.09) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 0.87 (0.78–0.96) <0.001 0.88 (0.82–0.95)  
    Model 2§ 1.00 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.02 (0.93–1.11) 0.93 (0.85–1.03) 0.90 (0.82–1.00) 0.010 0.91 (0.84–0.98)  
*

For vegetables, fruit, and fruit and vegetables combined, data for 3 servings/day increase are shown; for all other items, 1 serving/day increase is shown.

Shown is overall median intake for the entire category and, in parentheses, the median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles, data are in servings/day distribution based on the cumulative average of median values from questionnaires from 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998.

Additionally adjusted for BMI, physical activity, family history of diabetes, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol use, smoking, and total energy intake.

§

Adjusted for all variables in model 1 and additionally for whole grains, nuts, processed meats, coffee, potatoes, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks.

Neither fruit nor fruit and vegetables include fruit juices.

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