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Table 3—

Prospective cohort studies reporting measures of association between intake of fruits and vegetables and diabetes

Author, year (reference)PopulationnAge (years), sexExposure measureAdjustmentsFollow-up (years)Case ascertainmentEventsAssociation (95% CI)Notes
Colditz et al., 1992 (5) U.S. nurses 84,360 34–59, F 61-item FFQ Age, BMI, weight change, alcohol energy Follow-up questionnaire 702 diabetes HR Q5/1 0.76 (0.50–1.16) vegetable intake Q5/1: ≥2.9 serving/day of vegetables vs. <1.2 
Feskens et al., 1995 (6) Finnish and Dutch 338 70–89, M Cross-check diet history Age, cohort, BMI, past BMI, past energy intake 30 OGTT 71 IGT, 26 diabetes Inverse association of 2-h postload glucose and intake of vegetables and legumes Multivariate regression predicting 2-h postload glucose 
Meyer et al., 2000 (7) Postmenopausal Iowa women 35,988 55–69, F 127-item FFQ Age, smoking, total energy, BMI, alcohol, WHR, education, physical activity Iowa death register, biennial questionnaire, and NDI 1,141 diabetes HR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.05 (0.84–1.31), HR vegetables 1.07 (0.86–1.32), HR fruit 1.14 (0.93–1.39) Q5/1: >51 servings/week fruit + vegetables vs. <23, Q5/1: >33.5 servings/week vegetable vs. <14, Q 5/1: >19 servings/week fruit vs. <6.25 
Ford and Mokdad, 2001 (9) NHEFS 9,665 25–74, M + F Single 24-h dietary recall Age, race, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol, SBP, lipids, HTN, physical activity 19 Follow-up questionnaire, hospital records, death certificates 1,018 diabetes HR fruit + vegetable intake 0.73 (0.54–0.98) ≥5 times/day vs. 0 times/day, no portion size included; also identified a sex interaction 
Liu et al., 2004 (9) WHS 38,018 ≥45, F 131-item FFQ Age, smoking, total energy, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, HTN, hyperlipidemia, FH 8.8 Follow-up questionnaire 1,614 diabetes HR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.04 (0.87–1.25), HR fruit 0.97 (0.82–1.23), HR vegetables 1.03 (0.86–1.23) Q5/1: median 10.1 servings/day fruit + vegetables vs. 2.5, Q5/1: median 3.9 servings/day fruit vs. 0.62 
Montonen et al., 2005 (10) Finnish 4,304 40–69, M + F Diet history Age, sex, smoking, total energy, BMI, FH, geographic area 23 Finnish Social Insurance Institution's national database 383 diabetes HR Q4/1 vegetables 0.77 (0.57–1.03), HR green vegetables 0.69 (0.50–0.93), HR fruit 0.82 (0.61–1.11), HR berries 0.63 (0.47–0.85) Q4/1: >130 g/day vegetables vs. <42, Q4/1: >43 g/day green vegetables vs. <11, Q4/1: >138 g/day fruit vs. <20 
Author, year (reference)PopulationnAge (years), sexExposure measureAdjustmentsFollow-up (years)Case ascertainmentEventsAssociation (95% CI)Notes
Colditz et al., 1992 (5) U.S. nurses 84,360 34–59, F 61-item FFQ Age, BMI, weight change, alcohol energy Follow-up questionnaire 702 diabetes HR Q5/1 0.76 (0.50–1.16) vegetable intake Q5/1: ≥2.9 serving/day of vegetables vs. <1.2 
Feskens et al., 1995 (6) Finnish and Dutch 338 70–89, M Cross-check diet history Age, cohort, BMI, past BMI, past energy intake 30 OGTT 71 IGT, 26 diabetes Inverse association of 2-h postload glucose and intake of vegetables and legumes Multivariate regression predicting 2-h postload glucose 
Meyer et al., 2000 (7) Postmenopausal Iowa women 35,988 55–69, F 127-item FFQ Age, smoking, total energy, BMI, alcohol, WHR, education, physical activity Iowa death register, biennial questionnaire, and NDI 1,141 diabetes HR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.05 (0.84–1.31), HR vegetables 1.07 (0.86–1.32), HR fruit 1.14 (0.93–1.39) Q5/1: >51 servings/week fruit + vegetables vs. <23, Q5/1: >33.5 servings/week vegetable vs. <14, Q 5/1: >19 servings/week fruit vs. <6.25 
Ford and Mokdad, 2001 (9) NHEFS 9,665 25–74, M + F Single 24-h dietary recall Age, race, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol, SBP, lipids, HTN, physical activity 19 Follow-up questionnaire, hospital records, death certificates 1,018 diabetes HR fruit + vegetable intake 0.73 (0.54–0.98) ≥5 times/day vs. 0 times/day, no portion size included; also identified a sex interaction 
Liu et al., 2004 (9) WHS 38,018 ≥45, F 131-item FFQ Age, smoking, total energy, alcohol, BMI, physical activity, HTN, hyperlipidemia, FH 8.8 Follow-up questionnaire 1,614 diabetes HR Q5/1 fruit + vegetables 1.04 (0.87–1.25), HR fruit 0.97 (0.82–1.23), HR vegetables 1.03 (0.86–1.23) Q5/1: median 10.1 servings/day fruit + vegetables vs. 2.5, Q5/1: median 3.9 servings/day fruit vs. 0.62 
Montonen et al., 2005 (10) Finnish 4,304 40–69, M + F Diet history Age, sex, smoking, total energy, BMI, FH, geographic area 23 Finnish Social Insurance Institution's national database 383 diabetes HR Q4/1 vegetables 0.77 (0.57–1.03), HR green vegetables 0.69 (0.50–0.93), HR fruit 0.82 (0.61–1.11), HR berries 0.63 (0.47–0.85) Q4/1: >130 g/day vegetables vs. <42, Q4/1: >43 g/day green vegetables vs. <11, Q4/1: >138 g/day fruit vs. <20 

F, female; FH, family history of diabetes; HTN, hypertension; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; M, male; NHEFS, First National Health and Nutrition Examination Study Epidemiologic Follow-up Study; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; Q, quantile; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; WHS, Women's Health Study.

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