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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes of study participants randomized to ILS or placebo

ILS
Placebo
MenWomenMenWomen
n (%) 345 (32) 734 (68)* 335 (31) 747 (69)* 
Age (years) 54.0 ± 17.4 47.8 ± 14.5* 53.1 ± 15.2 48.3 ± 12.9* 
Race/ethnic group (n [%])     
    White 199 (57.7) 381 (51.9) 184 (54.9) 402 (53.8) 
    African American 50 (14.5) 154 (21.0) 57 (17.0) 163 (21.8) 
    Hispanic 58 (16.8) 120 (16.3) 57 (17.0) 111 (14.9) 
    American Indian 31 (9.0) 26 (3.5) 7 (2.1) 52 (7.0) 
    Asian 7 (2.0) 53 (7.2) 30 (9.0) 19 (2.5) 
Cardiometabolic risk factors     
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.6* 6.0 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.6* 
    TG (mmol/l) 2.01 ± 1.45 1.76 ± 1.29* 2.01 ± 1.32 1.94 ± 1.36 
    HDL (mmol/l) 1.01 ± 0.7 1.22 ± 0.41* 1.01 ± 0.26 1.16 ± 0.39* 
    BP (mmHg) 124/80 ± 18/13 121/78 ± 20/13* 125/80 ± 18/13 121/77 ± 20/13* 
    Waist circumference (cm) 106.5 ± 17.7 101.8 ± 19.0* 105.9 ± 17.2 103.0 ± 20.4* 
    BMI (kg/m230.9 ± 6.2 33.6 ± 8.6* 30.9 ± 7.1 34.1 ± 9.6* 
Activity     
    Leisure(MET/h) 13.8 ± 22.4 8.1 ± 12.8* 15.6 ± 24.1 8.1 ± 14.8* 
    Recreational (MET/h) 70.5 ± 57.0 57.4 ± 52.3* 70.9 ± 53.6 55.5 ± 48.8* 
Caloric intake (kcal) 2,065 ± 1,149 1,789 ± 1,041* 1,990 ± 1,178 1,851 ± 1,019* 
% on meds for TG or BP 22.0 17.8 21.2 15.7 
% women on HRT – 24.4 – 20.6 
Diabetes risk factors     
    2-h glucose (mmol/l) 9.0 ± 1.6 8.9 ± 1.5 9.0 ± 1.6 9.0 ± 1.6 
A1C (%) 5.9 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.6 
Insulin (pmol/l) 138 ± 102 144 ± 108 144 ± 90 144 ± 102 
Index of insulin secretion     
    CIR 0.49 ± 0.4 0.56 ± 0.41* 0.52 ± 0.49 0.57 ± 0.44* 
Index of insulin action     
HOMA-IR 6.0 ± 4.6 6.0 ± 4.9 6.4 ± 4.2 6.2 ± 4.7 
ILS
Placebo
MenWomenMenWomen
n (%) 345 (32) 734 (68)* 335 (31) 747 (69)* 
Age (years) 54.0 ± 17.4 47.8 ± 14.5* 53.1 ± 15.2 48.3 ± 12.9* 
Race/ethnic group (n [%])     
    White 199 (57.7) 381 (51.9) 184 (54.9) 402 (53.8) 
    African American 50 (14.5) 154 (21.0) 57 (17.0) 163 (21.8) 
    Hispanic 58 (16.8) 120 (16.3) 57 (17.0) 111 (14.9) 
    American Indian 31 (9.0) 26 (3.5) 7 (2.1) 52 (7.0) 
    Asian 7 (2.0) 53 (7.2) 30 (9.0) 19 (2.5) 
Cardiometabolic risk factors     
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.6* 6.0 ± 0.7 5.8 ± 0.6* 
    TG (mmol/l) 2.01 ± 1.45 1.76 ± 1.29* 2.01 ± 1.32 1.94 ± 1.36 
    HDL (mmol/l) 1.01 ± 0.7 1.22 ± 0.41* 1.01 ± 0.26 1.16 ± 0.39* 
    BP (mmHg) 124/80 ± 18/13 121/78 ± 20/13* 125/80 ± 18/13 121/77 ± 20/13* 
    Waist circumference (cm) 106.5 ± 17.7 101.8 ± 19.0* 105.9 ± 17.2 103.0 ± 20.4* 
    BMI (kg/m230.9 ± 6.2 33.6 ± 8.6* 30.9 ± 7.1 34.1 ± 9.6* 
Activity     
    Leisure(MET/h) 13.8 ± 22.4 8.1 ± 12.8* 15.6 ± 24.1 8.1 ± 14.8* 
    Recreational (MET/h) 70.5 ± 57.0 57.4 ± 52.3* 70.9 ± 53.6 55.5 ± 48.8* 
Caloric intake (kcal) 2,065 ± 1,149 1,789 ± 1,041* 1,990 ± 1,178 1,851 ± 1,019* 
% on meds for TG or BP 22.0 17.8 21.2 15.7 
% women on HRT – 24.4 – 20.6 
Diabetes risk factors     
    2-h glucose (mmol/l) 9.0 ± 1.6 8.9 ± 1.5 9.0 ± 1.6 9.0 ± 1.6 
A1C (%) 5.9 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.6 5.9 ± 0.7 5.9 ± 0.6 
Insulin (pmol/l) 138 ± 102 144 ± 108 144 ± 90 144 ± 102 
Index of insulin secretion     
    CIR 0.49 ± 0.4 0.56 ± 0.41* 0.52 ± 0.49 0.57 ± 0.44* 
Index of insulin action     
HOMA-IR 6.0 ± 4.6 6.0 ± 4.9 6.4 ± 4.2 6.2 ± 4.7 

Data are medians ± interquartile range unless otherwise indicated. Twenty Pacific Islanders were included in the “Asian” group. Physical activity data are based on responses to the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. MET-hours represent the average amount of time engaged in specified physical activities multiplied by the MET value of each activity. BP, blood pressure; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; TG, triglyceride.

*

P < 0.01, men vs. women;

P < 0.05, men vs. women.

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