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Table 3—

Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for diabetes not being detected by indicators of access*

Access to careOdds ratio (95% CI)
Financing  
    Uninsured 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 
    Covered by private insurance in insured 2.1 (1.2–3.6) 
Continuity of insurance coverage  
    Uninsured >1 year 2.5 (1.3–4.8) 
    Uninsured ≤1 year 2.6 (1.0–6.8) 
    Continuously insured over past year 1.0 (referent) 
Utilization  
    Number of times receiving health care over past year  
None 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 
Once a year 1.0 (0.5–2.2) 
Two to three 1.2 (0.5–2.7) 
Four or more 1.0 (Ref.) 
Routine patterns of health care utilization  
    No place 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 
    Hospital emergency room, outpatient department, or other 0.4 (0.1–2.0) 
    Clinic or health care centers 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 
    Doctor's office or HMO 1.0 (Ref.) 
Access to careOdds ratio (95% CI)
Financing  
    Uninsured 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 
    Covered by private insurance in insured 2.1 (1.2–3.6) 
Continuity of insurance coverage  
    Uninsured >1 year 2.5 (1.3–4.8) 
    Uninsured ≤1 year 2.6 (1.0–6.8) 
    Continuously insured over past year 1.0 (referent) 
Utilization  
    Number of times receiving health care over past year  
None 1.3 (0.6–2.8) 
Once a year 1.0 (0.5–2.2) 
Two to three 1.2 (0.5–2.7) 
Four or more 1.0 (Ref.) 
Routine patterns of health care utilization  
    No place 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 
    Hospital emergency room, outpatient department, or other 0.4 (0.1–2.0) 
    Clinic or health care centers 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 
    Doctor's office or HMO 1.0 (Ref.) 

Data source: NHANES 1999–2004.

*

Analytic population included participants with undiagnosed diabetes and no diabetes. Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, family income, BMI, and self-rated health (full model can be provided upon request). Each odds ratio refers to a separate logistic regression, and the number of observations in continuity of insurance coverage regression is 4,208 and in all other regressions is 4,760 after excluding missing data.

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