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Table 3—

Multivariate associations between beliefs, adherence, and health status

Independent variables predicting medication beliefsMedication beliefs (as dependent variables)
Antihyperglycemic
Antihypertensive
NecessityConcernsNecessityConcerns
n 803  573  
Age (years) −0.12*** −0.17*** −0.08 −0.17*** 
Sex (male) −0.02 −0.05 −0.10* 0.05 
Ethnic minority −0.03 0.12*** 0.03 0.09* 
Household income bracket −0.08* −0.05 −0.04 −0.07 
Number of prescription medications 0.12** −0.02 0.07 −0.06 
Whether prescribed insulin 0.23*** 0.03 −0.06 −0.04 
No. of medical conditions 0.09 0.11* 0.14** 0.08 
Satisfaction with medication information 0.05 −0.15*** 0.11*** −0.14*** 
Low functional health literacy −0.02 0.12*** 0.01 0.22*** 
Out-of-pocket prescription costs >$50/month 0.05 0.09* 0.07 0.04 
Independent variables predicting medication beliefsMedication beliefs (as dependent variables)
Antihyperglycemic
Antihypertensive
NecessityConcernsNecessityConcerns
n 803  573  
Age (years) −0.12*** −0.17*** −0.08 −0.17*** 
Sex (male) −0.02 −0.05 −0.10* 0.05 
Ethnic minority −0.03 0.12*** 0.03 0.09* 
Household income bracket −0.08* −0.05 −0.04 −0.07 
Number of prescription medications 0.12** −0.02 0.07 −0.06 
Whether prescribed insulin 0.23*** 0.03 −0.06 −0.04 
No. of medical conditions 0.09 0.11* 0.14** 0.08 
Satisfaction with medication information 0.05 −0.15*** 0.11*** −0.14*** 
Low functional health literacy −0.02 0.12*** 0.01 0.22*** 
Out-of-pocket prescription costs >$50/month 0.05 0.09* 0.07 0.04 
Binary dependent variables (medication underuse)Medication beliefs (as independent variables)§
Antihyperglycemic
Antihypertensive
NecessityConcernsNecessityConcerns
Cost-related underuse vs. no underuse 1.4 2.8*** 1.2 2.6*** 
Noncost-related underuse vs. no underuse 1.0 1.7*** 1.2 1.9*** 
Cost-related underuse vs. non-cost-related underuse 1.4 1.7*** 1.0 1.3 
Continuous dependent variables (health status)     
A1C (%) 0.03 0.08* — — 
SBP (mmHg) — — 0.09* 0.16*** 
DBP (mmHg) — — 0.07 0.12** 
Binary dependent variables (medication underuse)Medication beliefs (as independent variables)§
Antihyperglycemic
Antihypertensive
NecessityConcernsNecessityConcerns
Cost-related underuse vs. no underuse 1.4 2.8*** 1.2 2.6*** 
Noncost-related underuse vs. no underuse 1.0 1.7*** 1.2 1.9*** 
Cost-related underuse vs. non-cost-related underuse 1.4 1.7*** 1.0 1.3 
Continuous dependent variables (health status)     
A1C (%) 0.03 0.08* — — 
SBP (mmHg) — — 0.09* 0.16*** 
DBP (mmHg) — — 0.07 0.12** 
*

P < 0.05 (NS with Bonferroni correction).

**

P < 0.01.

***

P < 0.005.

Each column represents a separate ordinary least-squares regression model, with dependent variables listed as column headers and independent variables listed in rows. Cell entries represent standardized regression coefficients.

Cell entries are odds ratios (P value) of adjusted association between medication beliefs (independent variable, in columns) and underuse of the corresponding medication (dependent variable, in rows), with the second type of underuse as the reference group.

§

All models adjusted for age, sex, ethnic minority status, household income, number of prescription medications, insulin use, number of comorbid conditions, out-of-pocket prescription costs, and FHL.

Cell entries are standardized β coefficients (P value) of adjusted association between medication beliefs and the medical outcome variable.

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