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Table 2—

RRs of IFG and type 2 diabetes by cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity: ACLS, 1974–2006

No. of casesPerson-yearsRate*Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
IFG      
    Fitness level      
        1 (low) 410 3,801 109.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        2 688 6,535 107.9 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 
        3 748 7,628 95.6 0.92 (0.81–1.04) 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 
        4 912 10,225 89.2 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 
        5 (high) 854 11,419 74.5 0.75 (0.66–0.85) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    BMI      
        18.5–25.0 kg/m2 1,633 21,058 79.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        25.0–29.9 kg/m2 1,673 15,997 101.8 1.23 (1.15–1.32) 1.18 (1.10–1.27) 
        ≥30.0 kg/m2 306 2,555 123.1 1.41 (1.24–1.60) 1.28 (1.12–1.46) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    Waist girth§      
        ≤102 cm 2,175 25,072 87.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        >102 cm 388 2,878 130.6 1.39 (1.24–1.55) 1.27 (1.13–1.43) 
    % body fat      
        <25% 2,850 33,007 88.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        ≥25% 762 6,603 106.0 1.14 (1.05–1.23) 1.04 (0.95–1.13) 
Type 2 diabetes      
    Fitness level      
        1 (low) 94 10,640 12.4 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        2 102 17,802 5.6 0.65 (0.49–0.86) 0.80 (0.60–1.08) 
        3 102 20,331 4.5 0.53 (0.40–0.71) 0.71 (0.52–0.96) 
        4 101 25,460 3.5 0.43 (0.32–0.58) 0.62 (0.45–0.85) 
        5 (high) 78 27,162 2.4 0.30 (0.22–0.41) 0.48 (0.34–0.68) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    BMI      
        18.5–25.0 kg/m2 146 49,226 2.9 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        25.0–29.9 kg/m2 231 44,491 5.1 1.59 (1.29–1.97) 1.36 (1.09–1.69) 
        ≥30.0 kg/m2 100 7,677 14.0 3.85 (2.93–5.06) 2.66 (1.96–3.60) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    Waist girth      
        ≤102 cm 218 57,692 3.8 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        >102 cm 102 8,835 11.6 2.66 (2.08–3.41) 1.91 (1.46–2.50) 
    % body fat      
        <25% 316 82,071 4.0 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        ≥25% 161 19,328 7.9 1.79 (1.47–2.18) 1.27 (1.02–1.58) 
No. of casesPerson-yearsRate*Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
IFG      
    Fitness level      
        1 (low) 410 3,801 109.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        2 688 6,535 107.9 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 
        3 748 7,628 95.6 0.92 (0.81–1.04) 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 
        4 912 10,225 89.2 0.88 (0.78–0.99) 0.98 (0.86–1.11) 
        5 (high) 854 11,419 74.5 0.75 (0.66–0.85) 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    BMI      
        18.5–25.0 kg/m2 1,633 21,058 79.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        25.0–29.9 kg/m2 1,673 15,997 101.8 1.23 (1.15–1.32) 1.18 (1.10–1.27) 
        ≥30.0 kg/m2 306 2,555 123.1 1.41 (1.24–1.60) 1.28 (1.12–1.46) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    Waist girth§      
        ≤102 cm 2,175 25,072 87.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        >102 cm 388 2,878 130.6 1.39 (1.24–1.55) 1.27 (1.13–1.43) 
    % body fat      
        <25% 2,850 33,007 88.2 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        ≥25% 762 6,603 106.0 1.14 (1.05–1.23) 1.04 (0.95–1.13) 
Type 2 diabetes      
    Fitness level      
        1 (low) 94 10,640 12.4 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        2 102 17,802 5.6 0.65 (0.49–0.86) 0.80 (0.60–1.08) 
        3 102 20,331 4.5 0.53 (0.40–0.71) 0.71 (0.52–0.96) 
        4 101 25,460 3.5 0.43 (0.32–0.58) 0.62 (0.45–0.85) 
        5 (high) 78 27,162 2.4 0.30 (0.22–0.41) 0.48 (0.34–0.68) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    BMI      
        18.5–25.0 kg/m2 146 49,226 2.9 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        25.0–29.9 kg/m2 231 44,491 5.1 1.59 (1.29–1.97) 1.36 (1.09–1.69) 
        ≥30.0 kg/m2 100 7,677 14.0 3.85 (2.93–5.06) 2.66 (1.96–3.60) 
        Ptrend    <0.001 <0.001 
    Waist girth      
        ≤102 cm 218 57,692 3.8 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        >102 cm 102 8,835 11.6 2.66 (2.08–3.41) 1.91 (1.46–2.50) 
    % body fat      
        <25% 316 82,071 4.0 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 
        ≥25% 161 19,328 7.9 1.79 (1.47–2.18) 1.27 (1.02–1.58) 
*

Per 1,000 person-years adjusted for age and examination year.

Adjusted for age, examination year, parental diabetes, current smoking, alcohol consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and IFG (for type 2 diabetes).

Adjusted for model 1 plus BMI (for fitness) or treadmill time (for BMI, waist girth, and percent body fat).

§

Data from 5,836 men (2,563 IFG events).

Data from 10,326 men (320 type 2 diabetes events).

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