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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of ACCORD-MIND participants

VariableResult
n 2,977 
Female sex (%) 1,388 (47) 
Age (years) 62.5 ± 5.8 
Diabetes duration (years) 10.4 ± 7.3 
Mean BMI (kg/m233.0 ± 5.4 
Mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 0.092 ± 0.404 
Previous cardiovascular disease (%)* 869 (29) 
Stroke (%) 151 (5) 
Nonstroke (%) 718 (24) 
Hyperlipidemia (%) 2,426 (82) 
Previous hypertension or use of blood pressure drugs (%) 2,578 (87) 
Current smoker (%) 352 (12) 
>3 drinks/week (%) 232 (8) 
Education  
    Not a high school graduate (%) 392 (13) 
    Just high school (%) 769 (26) 
    Some college or technical school (%) 1,027 (35) 
    College graduate or more (%) 789 (27) 
Ethnicity  
    Hispanic (%) 213 (7) 
    Non-Hispanic white (%) 2,074 (70) 
    African American/African Canadian (%) 478 (16) 
    Asian (%) 67 (2) 
    American Indian/Alaska Native (%) 65 (2) 
    Other (%) 80 (2.6) 
Vitrectomy (%) 15 (0.5) 
Neuropathy (%) 1,472 (50) 
Past or current depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10 (%) 980 (33) 
Living alone (%) 654 (22) 
Cognitive testing in Spanish 63 ± 2.1 
DSST score 53 (42–63) 
MMSE score 28 (26–29) 
Memory score 7.4 (5.7–9.3) 
Stroop Test score (s) 29 (21–38) 
A1C (%) 8.3 ± 1.1 
FPG (mg/dl) 175.5 ± 55 
VariableResult
n 2,977 
Female sex (%) 1,388 (47) 
Age (years) 62.5 ± 5.8 
Diabetes duration (years) 10.4 ± 7.3 
Mean BMI (kg/m233.0 ± 5.4 
Mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 0.092 ± 0.404 
Previous cardiovascular disease (%)* 869 (29) 
Stroke (%) 151 (5) 
Nonstroke (%) 718 (24) 
Hyperlipidemia (%) 2,426 (82) 
Previous hypertension or use of blood pressure drugs (%) 2,578 (87) 
Current smoker (%) 352 (12) 
>3 drinks/week (%) 232 (8) 
Education  
    Not a high school graduate (%) 392 (13) 
    Just high school (%) 769 (26) 
    Some college or technical school (%) 1,027 (35) 
    College graduate or more (%) 789 (27) 
Ethnicity  
    Hispanic (%) 213 (7) 
    Non-Hispanic white (%) 2,074 (70) 
    African American/African Canadian (%) 478 (16) 
    Asian (%) 67 (2) 
    American Indian/Alaska Native (%) 65 (2) 
    Other (%) 80 (2.6) 
Vitrectomy (%) 15 (0.5) 
Neuropathy (%) 1,472 (50) 
Past or current depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10 (%) 980 (33) 
Living alone (%) 654 (22) 
Cognitive testing in Spanish 63 ± 2.1 
DSST score 53 (42–63) 
MMSE score 28 (26–29) 
Memory score 7.4 (5.7–9.3) 
Stroop Test score (s) 29 (21–38) 
A1C (%) 8.3 ± 1.1 
FPG (mg/dl) 175.5 ± 55 

Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (25th–75th percentile). The range of scores for the ACCORD participants is DSST 2–97, MMSE 12–30, memory 0.9–14.5, and Stroop −10 to 171.

*

Myocardial infarction, angina with ischemic changes on graded exercise test or positive imaging, coronary revascularization procedures, or stroke.

Taking lipid-lowering medication or an untreated LDL cholesterol level >130 mg/dl (3.38 mmol/l).

History of neuropathy or absent ankle reflexes or vibration perception at great toe for either foot.

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