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Table 2—

β-coefficients for the age-adjusted relationship between cognitive test scores, glycemic status, and other variables: ACCORD-MIND

VariableDSSTMMSEMemory scoreStroop
Female sex 1.79 −0.27 1.30§ 0.41 
Diabetes duration (years) −0.26§ 0.14 −0.01 −0.01 
CVD* −1.98 0.12 −0.48§ 1.43 
Stroke −8.18§ −0.69 −0.86§ 4.53 
Nonstroke CVD −0.08 0.32 −0.31 0.40 
Hyperlipidemia 1.95 0.02 −0.12 −1.22 
Hypertension or blood pressure drugs −1.78 −0.11 −0.14 0.37 
Current smoker −2.75 −0.29 −0.46 0.38 
>3 drinks/week 4.80§ 0.76§ −0.01 −2.81 
Education     
    < high school −22.51§ −3.24§ −1.89§ 12.30§ 
    High school −10.63§ −1.4§ −0.89§ 6.63§ 
    Some college −5.2§ −0.6§ −0.41 3.86§ 
Language −25.97§ −2.7§ −1.51§ 10.27§ 
Race (Nonwhite) −13.39§ −1.92§ −0.83§ 6.71§ 
Vitrectomy −7.78 0.49 0.50 7.11 
Neuropathy 1.84 0.41§ 0.17 −0.82 
Depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10 −1.04 −0.34 −0.05 0.54 
Living alone 0.21 0.07 0.27 1.19 
BMI (kg/m20.20 0.04§ 0.04§ 0.04 
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio −3.06§ −0.11 −0.20 1.29 
A1C (%) −1.75§ −0.20§ −0.11 0.75 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 0.0057 0.0006 0.00006 −0.0055 
VariableDSSTMMSEMemory scoreStroop
Female sex 1.79 −0.27 1.30§ 0.41 
Diabetes duration (years) −0.26§ 0.14 −0.01 −0.01 
CVD* −1.98 0.12 −0.48§ 1.43 
Stroke −8.18§ −0.69 −0.86§ 4.53 
Nonstroke CVD −0.08 0.32 −0.31 0.40 
Hyperlipidemia 1.95 0.02 −0.12 −1.22 
Hypertension or blood pressure drugs −1.78 −0.11 −0.14 0.37 
Current smoker −2.75 −0.29 −0.46 0.38 
>3 drinks/week 4.80§ 0.76§ −0.01 −2.81 
Education     
    < high school −22.51§ −3.24§ −1.89§ 12.30§ 
    High school −10.63§ −1.4§ −0.89§ 6.63§ 
    Some college −5.2§ −0.6§ −0.41 3.86§ 
Language −25.97§ −2.7§ −1.51§ 10.27§ 
Race (Nonwhite) −13.39§ −1.92§ −0.83§ 6.71§ 
Vitrectomy −7.78 0.49 0.50 7.11 
Neuropathy 1.84 0.41§ 0.17 −0.82 
Depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10 −1.04 −0.34 −0.05 0.54 
Living alone 0.21 0.07 0.27 1.19 
BMI (kg/m20.20 0.04§ 0.04§ 0.04 
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio −3.06§ −0.11 −0.20 1.29 
A1C (%) −1.75§ −0.20§ −0.11 0.75 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 0.0057 0.0006 0.00006 −0.0055 
*

Myocardial infarction, angina with ischemic changes on graded exercise test or positive imaging, coronary revascularization procedures, or stroke.

Taking lipid-lowering medication or an untreated LDL cholesterol level >130 mg/dl (3.38 mmol/l).

History of neuropathy or absent ankle reflexes or vibration perception at great toe for either foot.

§

P ≤ 0.0001;

P ≤ 0.05.

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