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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics according to serum creatinine levels and multivariate logistic regression models of the incidence of type 2 diabetes

TotalSerum creatinine (mg/dl)
0.40–0.600.61–0.700.71–0.800.81–0.900.91–1.60
n 8,570 699 2,101 3,046 1,837 887 
Age (years) 47.8 ± 4.2 48.1 ± 4.0 47.7 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.1 48.0 ± 4.1 
Height (cm) 168.9 ± 5.6 167.6 ± 5.7 168.6 ± 5.7 169.1 ± 5.5 169.2 ± 5.4 169.4 ± 5.6 
Weight (kg) 66.8 ± 9.4 63.9 ± 9.2 65.3 ± 9.7 67.0 ± 9.0 68.1 ± 9.1 69.6 ± 9.3 
BMI (kg/m223.4 ± 2.9 22.7 ± 2.9 23.0 ± 3.0 23.4 ± 2.8 23.8 ± 2.7 24.2 ± 2.9 
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 97.6 ± 9.5 97.7 ± 9.8 97.3 ± 9.4 97.6 ± 9.5 97.8 ± 9.2 98.1 ± 9.5 
Daily alcohol consumption (g ethanol) 25.2 ± 21.9 29.0 ± 24.2 27.4 ± 22.6 25.2 ± 21.7 23.7 ± 21.3 20.2 ± 19.5 
Drinking habit categories       
    Nondrinkers 15.5 14.7 13.3 15.6 16.8 18.6 
    Light drinkers 19.3 15.6 18.0 18.9 20.4 24.5 
    Moderate drinkers 35.0 33.9 35.6 34.4 35.3 36.1 
    Heavy drinkers 30.1 35.8 33.1 31.1 27.5 20.9 
Smoking habit       
    Nonsmokers 21.5 12.7 18.2 21.3 24.9 29.5 
    Past smokers 22.4 14.3 17.8 22.7 27.1 29.2 
    Current smokers 56.1 73.0 64.0 56.0 48.0 41.3 
Walk to work       
    0–10 min 19.8 18.0 18.2 18.9 22.0 23.3 
    11–20 min 52.4 52.1 52.2 54.6 49.0 52.2 
    ≥21 min 27.9 29.9 29.6 26.5 29.0 24.5 
Regular leisure-time physical activity 18.1 10.0 15.8 17.9 21.7 23.1 
Family history of diabetes 12.9 12.7 12.6 12.9 13.6 12.1 
Incidence of type 2 diabetes 877 (10.2) 103 (14.7) 223 (10.6) 283 (9.3) 176 (9.6) 92 (10.4) 
Total model       
    Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.69 (1.32–2.15) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 1.00 1.04 (0.85–1.26) 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 
    Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.91 (1.44–2.54) 1.32 (1.07–1.63) 1.00 1.04 (0.83–1.30) 1.01 (0.76–1.35) 
Stratified analysis according to median BMI       
    BMI ≤23.31 kg/m2 4,286      
Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.90 (1.31–2.76) 1.27 (0.94–1.71) 1.00 1.11 (0.79–1.57) 0.99 (0.61–1.62) 
        Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.96 (1.28–2.98) 1.37 (0.98–1.91) 1.00 1.13 (0.78–1.65) 0.91 (0.53–1.56) 
    BMI >23.31 kg/m2 4,284      
Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.78 (1.28–2.46) 1.20 (0.94–1.52) 1.00 0.95 (0.75–1.22) 1.06 (0.79–1.42) 
        Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.85 (1.26–2.73) 1.29 (0.98–1.71) 1.00 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 1.05 (0.75–1.48) 
TotalSerum creatinine (mg/dl)
0.40–0.600.61–0.700.71–0.800.81–0.900.91–1.60
n 8,570 699 2,101 3,046 1,837 887 
Age (years) 47.8 ± 4.2 48.1 ± 4.0 47.7 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.2 47.7 ± 4.1 48.0 ± 4.1 
Height (cm) 168.9 ± 5.6 167.6 ± 5.7 168.6 ± 5.7 169.1 ± 5.5 169.2 ± 5.4 169.4 ± 5.6 
Weight (kg) 66.8 ± 9.4 63.9 ± 9.2 65.3 ± 9.7 67.0 ± 9.0 68.1 ± 9.1 69.6 ± 9.3 
BMI (kg/m223.4 ± 2.9 22.7 ± 2.9 23.0 ± 3.0 23.4 ± 2.8 23.8 ± 2.7 24.2 ± 2.9 
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 97.6 ± 9.5 97.7 ± 9.8 97.3 ± 9.4 97.6 ± 9.5 97.8 ± 9.2 98.1 ± 9.5 
Daily alcohol consumption (g ethanol) 25.2 ± 21.9 29.0 ± 24.2 27.4 ± 22.6 25.2 ± 21.7 23.7 ± 21.3 20.2 ± 19.5 
Drinking habit categories       
    Nondrinkers 15.5 14.7 13.3 15.6 16.8 18.6 
    Light drinkers 19.3 15.6 18.0 18.9 20.4 24.5 
    Moderate drinkers 35.0 33.9 35.6 34.4 35.3 36.1 
    Heavy drinkers 30.1 35.8 33.1 31.1 27.5 20.9 
Smoking habit       
    Nonsmokers 21.5 12.7 18.2 21.3 24.9 29.5 
    Past smokers 22.4 14.3 17.8 22.7 27.1 29.2 
    Current smokers 56.1 73.0 64.0 56.0 48.0 41.3 
Walk to work       
    0–10 min 19.8 18.0 18.2 18.9 22.0 23.3 
    11–20 min 52.4 52.1 52.2 54.6 49.0 52.2 
    ≥21 min 27.9 29.9 29.6 26.5 29.0 24.5 
Regular leisure-time physical activity 18.1 10.0 15.8 17.9 21.7 23.1 
Family history of diabetes 12.9 12.7 12.6 12.9 13.6 12.1 
Incidence of type 2 diabetes 877 (10.2) 103 (14.7) 223 (10.6) 283 (9.3) 176 (9.6) 92 (10.4) 
Total model       
    Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.69 (1.32–2.15) 1.16 (0.96–1.40) 1.00 1.04 (0.85–1.26) 1.13 (0.88–1.45) 
    Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.91 (1.44–2.54) 1.32 (1.07–1.63) 1.00 1.04 (0.83–1.30) 1.01 (0.76–1.35) 
Stratified analysis according to median BMI       
    BMI ≤23.31 kg/m2 4,286      
Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.90 (1.31–2.76) 1.27 (0.94–1.71) 1.00 1.11 (0.79–1.57) 0.99 (0.61–1.62) 
        Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.96 (1.28–2.98) 1.37 (0.98–1.91) 1.00 1.13 (0.78–1.65) 0.91 (0.53–1.56) 
    BMI >23.31 kg/m2 4,284      
Crude odds ratio (95% CI)  1.78 (1.28–2.46) 1.20 (0.94–1.52) 1.00 0.95 (0.75–1.22) 1.06 (0.79–1.42) 
        Multiple-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)*  1.85 (1.26–2.73) 1.29 (0.98–1.71) 1.00 0.99 (0.75–1.32) 1.05 (0.75–1.48) 

Data are means ± SD, %, or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. In multiple logistic regression analysis, age, daily alcohol consumption, fasting plasma glucose, and serum creatinine showed a nonlinear association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in all models. Therefore, we fit the models by using these variables categorized for easy understanding.

*

The multiple logistic regression model was adjusted for age (40–44, 45–49, or 50–55 years), BMI, fasting plasma glucose (<100, 100–109, or 110–125 mg/dl), daily alcohol consumption (nondrinkers, light drinkers [0.1–16.3 g ethanol/day], moderate drinkers [16.4–42.6 g ethanol/day], or heavy drinkers [42.7–115.0 g ethanol/day]), smoking habit (nonsmokers, past smokers, or current smokers), the duration of the walk to work (0–10, 11–20, or ≥21 min), regular leisure-time physical activity, and family history of diabetes.

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