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Table 3

Fetal and neonatal complications in type 1 diabetic pregnancies and the general obstetric population

Outcome variableProportions (% if not indicated otherwise)
OR (95% CI) for group differences
Type 1 diabetesControlCrudeAdjusted
Stillbirth 1.5 0.3 4.04 (3.02–5.40) 3.34 (2.46–4.55) 
Fetal distress 14 6.2 2.45 (2.24–2.69) 2.34 (2.12–2.58) 
Perinatal mortality (‰) 20 4.8 4.02 (3.11–5.20) 3.29 (2.50–4.33) 
Neonatal mortality, 0–7 days (‰) 5.1 1.8 2.91 (1.97–4.28) 3.05 (1.68–5.55) 
Neonatal mortality, 0–28 days (‰) 7.0 2.2 3.08 (2.02–4.70) 2.67 (1.72–4.16) 
Birth <37 weeks gestational age 21 5.1 5.27 (4.88–5.71) 4.86 (4.47–5.28) 
Birth <32 weeks gestational age 2.3 0.7 3.58 (2.89–4.44) 3.08 (2.45–3.87) 
LGA 31 3.6 12.2 (11.4–13.1) 11.4 (10.6–12.4) 
SGA 2.3 2.5 0.80 (0.63–1.02) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 
Major malformations 4.7 1.8 2.70 (2.37–3.08) 2.50 (2.13–2.94) 
Apgar score <7 at 5 min 3.1 1.1 2.98 (2.54–3.50) 2.60 (2.14–3.17) 
Apgar score <4 at 5 min 0.80 0.30 2.60 (1.79–3.78) 2.39 (1.64–3.51) 
Erb palsy* 2.1 0.25 7.91 (5.77–10.8) 6.69 (4.81–9.31) 
Respiratory distress syndrome 1.0 0.20 4.88 (3.51–6.81) 4.65 (2.20–9.84) 
Respiratory disorders 9.5 2.6 4.02 (3.67–4.42) 3.42 (3.04–3.85) 
Outcome variableProportions (% if not indicated otherwise)
OR (95% CI) for group differences
Type 1 diabetesControlCrudeAdjusted
Stillbirth 1.5 0.3 4.04 (3.02–5.40) 3.34 (2.46–4.55) 
Fetal distress 14 6.2 2.45 (2.24–2.69) 2.34 (2.12–2.58) 
Perinatal mortality (‰) 20 4.8 4.02 (3.11–5.20) 3.29 (2.50–4.33) 
Neonatal mortality, 0–7 days (‰) 5.1 1.8 2.91 (1.97–4.28) 3.05 (1.68–5.55) 
Neonatal mortality, 0–28 days (‰) 7.0 2.2 3.08 (2.02–4.70) 2.67 (1.72–4.16) 
Birth <37 weeks gestational age 21 5.1 5.27 (4.88–5.71) 4.86 (4.47–5.28) 
Birth <32 weeks gestational age 2.3 0.7 3.58 (2.89–4.44) 3.08 (2.45–3.87) 
LGA 31 3.6 12.2 (11.4–13.1) 11.4 (10.6–12.4) 
SGA 2.3 2.5 0.80 (0.63–1.02) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 
Major malformations 4.7 1.8 2.70 (2.37–3.08) 2.50 (2.13–2.94) 
Apgar score <7 at 5 min 3.1 1.1 2.98 (2.54–3.50) 2.60 (2.14–3.17) 
Apgar score <4 at 5 min 0.80 0.30 2.60 (1.79–3.78) 2.39 (1.64–3.51) 
Erb palsy* 2.1 0.25 7.91 (5.77–10.8) 6.69 (4.81–9.31) 
Respiratory distress syndrome 1.0 0.20 4.88 (3.51–6.81) 4.65 (2.20–9.84) 
Respiratory disorders 9.5 2.6 4.02 (3.67–4.42) 3.42 (3.04–3.85) 

Data are proportions or OR (95% CI). Adjusted OR, OR adjusted for group differences in maternal age, BMI, parity, chronic hypertensive disorder, smoking habits, and ethnicity.

*Vaginal deliveries only.

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