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Table 2—

Metabolic parameters of the study participants at baseline

NonprogressorsProgressorsP
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.92 ± 0.05 5.27 ± 0.11 0.002 
2-h glucose (mmol/l) 6.2 ± 0.12 6.5 ± 0.28 0.27 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 183.0 (130.5–229.5) 195.0 (138.0–229.5) 0.89 
Proinsulin (pmol/l) 20 (14.0–32.0) 22 (13.0–25.5) 0.56 
A1C (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.3 0.049 
SI 3.8 (1.99–9.05) 4.5 (2.1–4.5) 0.82 
β-Cell responsivity (Φ)    
    Φs 68.9 (52.9–85.5) 62.5 (48.8–89.1) 0.95 
    Φd 2,514.7 (1,488.6–3,618.8) 2,001.6 (1,295.0–2,276.4) 0.04 
    Φtot 106.7 (79.1–139.8) 87.9 (77.8–119.8) 0.35 
DI 612.5 (406.2–1,348.1) 545.8 (368.7–1,147.7) 0.66 
Adipokines    
    Leptin (ng/ml) 25 (17.0–41.0) 31 (28.3–43.8) 0.02 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 6.8 (4.0–9.6) 6.9 (5.6–8.8) 0.43 
    IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.89 (1.1–3.1) 3.1 (1.5–4.5) 0.21 
Lipids    
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.05 (0.83–1.18) 1.03 (0.83–1.22) 0.96 
    Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.03 (0.77–1.7) 1.13 (0.80–1.39) 0.76 
NonprogressorsProgressorsP
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.92 ± 0.05 5.27 ± 0.11 0.002 
2-h glucose (mmol/l) 6.2 ± 0.12 6.5 ± 0.28 0.27 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 183.0 (130.5–229.5) 195.0 (138.0–229.5) 0.89 
Proinsulin (pmol/l) 20 (14.0–32.0) 22 (13.0–25.5) 0.56 
A1C (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.3 0.049 
SI 3.8 (1.99–9.05) 4.5 (2.1–4.5) 0.82 
β-Cell responsivity (Φ)    
    Φs 68.9 (52.9–85.5) 62.5 (48.8–89.1) 0.95 
    Φd 2,514.7 (1,488.6–3,618.8) 2,001.6 (1,295.0–2,276.4) 0.04 
    Φtot 106.7 (79.1–139.8) 87.9 (77.8–119.8) 0.35 
DI 612.5 (406.2–1,348.1) 545.8 (368.7–1,147.7) 0.66 
Adipokines    
    Leptin (ng/ml) 25 (17.0–41.0) 31 (28.3–43.8) 0.02 
    Adiponectin (μg/ml) 6.8 (4.0–9.6) 6.9 (5.6–8.8) 0.43 
    IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.89 (1.1–3.1) 3.1 (1.5–4.5) 0.21 
Lipids    
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.05 (0.83–1.18) 1.03 (0.83–1.22) 0.96 
    Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.03 (0.77–1.7) 1.13 (0.80–1.39) 0.76 

Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range).

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