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Table 1

Parental stress expressed as parental stress index, with lower scores indicating higher stress levels

Parental stress index
Parents of an autoantibody-positive child
Parents of a child with diabetes
MeanSEMPMeanSEMP
Autoantibody-positive child 4.50 0.05  Child with diabetes 4.18 0.12 0.005 
Control 4.52 0.03  Control 4.56 0.05  
Mothers 4.64 0.07 0.005 Mothers 4.09 0.07  
Fathers 4.38 0.06  Fathers 4.29 0.06  
Transient autoantibodies 4.50 0.06      
Multiple permanent 4.49 0.07      
Participated in intervention 4.48 0.10  Participated in intervention 4.16   
Eligible, did not participate 4.51 0.11  Eligible, did not participate 4.21   
Living alone 3.95 0.18 0.001 Living alone 3.25 0.43 0.012 
Living as couples 4.55 0.05  Living as couples 4.27 0.11  
Chronic illness in family 4.26 0.11 0.001 Chronic illness in family 3.73 0.29 0.03 
No chronic illness 4.58 0.05  No chronic illness 4.32 0.11  
Unemployment 4.45 0.13  Unemployment 3.97 0.37  
No unemployment 4.61 0.06  No unemployment 4.68 0.10  
Urban environment 4.42 0.06 0.027 Urban environment 4.09 0.15  
Rural environment 4.64 0.05  Rural environment 4.34 0.21  
Parental stress index
Parents of an autoantibody-positive child
Parents of a child with diabetes
MeanSEMPMeanSEMP
Autoantibody-positive child 4.50 0.05  Child with diabetes 4.18 0.12 0.005 
Control 4.52 0.03  Control 4.56 0.05  
Mothers 4.64 0.07 0.005 Mothers 4.09 0.07  
Fathers 4.38 0.06  Fathers 4.29 0.06  
Transient autoantibodies 4.50 0.06      
Multiple permanent 4.49 0.07      
Participated in intervention 4.48 0.10  Participated in intervention 4.16   
Eligible, did not participate 4.51 0.11  Eligible, did not participate 4.21   
Living alone 3.95 0.18 0.001 Living alone 3.25 0.43 0.012 
Living as couples 4.55 0.05  Living as couples 4.27 0.11  
Chronic illness in family 4.26 0.11 0.001 Chronic illness in family 3.73 0.29 0.03 
No chronic illness 4.58 0.05  No chronic illness 4.32 0.11  
Unemployment 4.45 0.13  Unemployment 3.97 0.37  
No unemployment 4.61 0.06  No unemployment 4.68 0.10  
Urban environment 4.42 0.06 0.027 Urban environment 4.09 0.15  
Rural environment 4.64 0.05  Rural environment 4.34 0.21  

P values are given for statistically significant differences.

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