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Table 1

Sleep AHEAD participant characteristics at baseline

Total Sleep AHEAD participantsSleep AHEAD participants (male)Sleep AHEAD participants (female)P
n 305 122 183  
Race/ethnicity (%)    <0.0001 
    White 73.0 90.1 61.8  
    African American 19.1 6.6 27.3  
    Other 7.9 3.3 10.9  
Postmenopause 90.1 N/A 90.1 n/a 
Age (years) 61.3 ± 6.5 61.4 ± 7.1 61.3 ± 6.1 0.89 
BMI (kg/m236.5 ± 5.8 36.1 ± 5.6 36.7 ± 5.9 0.34 
Weight (kg) 101.7 ± 18.0 110.9 ± 16.5 95.6 ± 16.2 <0.0001 
Height (cm) 167.0 ± 9.7 175.5 ± 7.0 161.3 ± 6.6 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 115.0 ± 13.0 120.9 ± 12.1 111.0 ± 12.1 <0.0001 
Neck circumference (cm) 41.1 ± 4.4 44.4 ± 3.2 39.0 ± 3.1 <0.0001 
A1C 7.2 ± 1.1 7.4 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.0 0.03 
Total sleep time (h) 6.0 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.1 0.03 
Sleep efficiency (%) 77.5 ± 11.1 77.1 ± 11.8 77.7 ± 10.6 0.69 
Time in non-REM stages (h) 4.9 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.1 5.0 ± 1.0 0.32 
Time in REM stages (h) 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 0.002 
Sleep time supine (h) 2.1 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 2.1 0.21 
Obstructive apnea index 11.1 ± 12.8 14.2 ± 15.5 9.1 ± 10.2 0.008 
Central apnea index 0.4 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 0.7 0.003 
Hypopneas with ≥4% oxygen desaturation*     
    Apnea-hypopnea index 20.5 ± 16.8 24.6 ± 18.6 17.8 ± 15.0 0.001 
    Hypopnea index 9.0 ± 8.1 9.8 ± 8.3 8.4 ± 8.0 0.16 
Oxygen desaturation index (≥4%) 17.6 ± 14.7 20.0 ± 15.9 15.9 ± 13.7 0.03 
Participants that spent >10% of time below 90% saturation (%) 16.1 20.5 13.1 0.11 
Oxygen saturation nadir 81.4 ± 8.3 81.2 ± 7.5 81.6 ± 8.8 0.65 
Epworth Sleepiness Score 7.9 ± 4.6 8.0 ± 4.5 7.8 ± 4.7 0.80 
Total Sleep AHEAD participantsSleep AHEAD participants (male)Sleep AHEAD participants (female)P
n 305 122 183  
Race/ethnicity (%)    <0.0001 
    White 73.0 90.1 61.8  
    African American 19.1 6.6 27.3  
    Other 7.9 3.3 10.9  
Postmenopause 90.1 N/A 90.1 n/a 
Age (years) 61.3 ± 6.5 61.4 ± 7.1 61.3 ± 6.1 0.89 
BMI (kg/m236.5 ± 5.8 36.1 ± 5.6 36.7 ± 5.9 0.34 
Weight (kg) 101.7 ± 18.0 110.9 ± 16.5 95.6 ± 16.2 <0.0001 
Height (cm) 167.0 ± 9.7 175.5 ± 7.0 161.3 ± 6.6 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 115.0 ± 13.0 120.9 ± 12.1 111.0 ± 12.1 <0.0001 
Neck circumference (cm) 41.1 ± 4.4 44.4 ± 3.2 39.0 ± 3.1 <0.0001 
A1C 7.2 ± 1.1 7.4 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.0 0.03 
Total sleep time (h) 6.0 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 1.1 0.03 
Sleep efficiency (%) 77.5 ± 11.1 77.1 ± 11.8 77.7 ± 10.6 0.69 
Time in non-REM stages (h) 4.9 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.1 5.0 ± 1.0 0.32 
Time in REM stages (h) 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.5 0.002 
Sleep time supine (h) 2.1 ± 2.0 1.9 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 2.1 0.21 
Obstructive apnea index 11.1 ± 12.8 14.2 ± 15.5 9.1 ± 10.2 0.008 
Central apnea index 0.4 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 1.2 0.3 ± 0.7 0.003 
Hypopneas with ≥4% oxygen desaturation*     
    Apnea-hypopnea index 20.5 ± 16.8 24.6 ± 18.6 17.8 ± 15.0 0.001 
    Hypopnea index 9.0 ± 8.1 9.8 ± 8.3 8.4 ± 8.0 0.16 
Oxygen desaturation index (≥4%) 17.6 ± 14.7 20.0 ± 15.9 15.9 ± 13.7 0.03 
Participants that spent >10% of time below 90% saturation (%) 16.1 20.5 13.1 0.11 
Oxygen saturation nadir 81.4 ± 8.3 81.2 ± 7.5 81.6 ± 8.8 0.65 
Epworth Sleepiness Score 7.9 ± 4.6 8.0 ± 4.5 7.8 ± 4.7 0.80 

Data are means ± SD.

*See Ref. (5).

†Based on oxygen desaturation events ≥4% (5). REM, rapid eye movement.

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