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Table 1

All PM2.5 models: multivariate results for 2004 and 2005

PM modelYearCovariates*β [95%CI]nP value
36-km 2004 Census 2000 1.15 [1.02–1.32] 2,754 <0.001 
36-km 2005 Census 2000 0.92 [0.75–1.13] 2,126 <0.001 
36-km 2004 ACS 1-year 0.78 [0.39–1.25] 241 <0.001 
36-km 2005 ACS 1-year 0.81 [0.48–1.07] 766 <0.001 
12-km 2004 Census 2000 1.12 [0.95–1.31] 2,501 <0.001 
12-km 2005 Census 2000 0.90 [0.78–1.12] 1,945 <0.001 
12-km 2004 ACS 1-year 0.96 [0.50–1.37] 198 <0.001 
12-km 2005 ACS 1-year 1.06 [0.78–1.27] 665 <0.001 
Ground 2004 Census 2000 1.10 [0.81–1.51] 583 <0.001 
Ground 2005 Census 2000 1.02 [0.77–1.34] 556 <0.001 
Ground 2004 ACS 1-year 0.83 [0.25–1.32] 211 <0.001 
Ground 2005 ACS 1-year 1.00 [0.73–1.36] 428 <0.001 
PM modelYearCovariates*β [95%CI]nP value
36-km 2004 Census 2000 1.15 [1.02–1.32] 2,754 <0.001 
36-km 2005 Census 2000 0.92 [0.75–1.13] 2,126 <0.001 
36-km 2004 ACS 1-year 0.78 [0.39–1.25] 241 <0.001 
36-km 2005 ACS 1-year 0.81 [0.48–1.07] 766 <0.001 
12-km 2004 Census 2000 1.12 [0.95–1.31] 2,501 <0.001 
12-km 2005 Census 2000 0.90 [0.78–1.12] 1,945 <0.001 
12-km 2004 ACS 1-year 0.96 [0.50–1.37] 198 <0.001 
12-km 2005 ACS 1-year 1.06 [0.78–1.27] 665 <0.001 
Ground 2004 Census 2000 1.10 [0.81–1.51] 583 <0.001 
Ground 2005 Census 2000 1.02 [0.77–1.34] 556 <0.001 
Ground 2004 ACS 1-year 0.83 [0.25–1.32] 211 <0.001 
Ground 2005 ACS 1-year 1.00 [0.73–1.36] 428 <0.001 

Relationship between PM2.5 exposure estimates and diabetes prevalence from the multivariate model using ACS 1-year socioeconomic covariates or Census 2000 socioeconomic covariates.

*Both of the covariate models used the following for the PM2.5 model year: median age, percentage of men, per capita income, percentage of population >25 years with a high school diploma or general equivalency degree, percentage of Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians, health insurance, obesity, physical activity, latitude, and population density.

†The β coefficient represents the increase in the percentage of diabetes prevalence for every PM2.5 increase of 10 μg/m3.

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