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Table 2

Risk analysis: comparison of mean diabetes prevalence between counties in the lowest and highest quartiles for PM2.5 levels in 2004 and 2005

PM modelYearQuartileMean PM2.5 (μg/m3) by quartile*Mean [95%CI] diabetes prevalenceIncreased diabetes prevalence (%)
36-km 2004 Lowest 7.71 7.51 [7.41–7.62]  
36-km 2004 Highest 12.11 8.95 [8.85–9.06] 19.11 
36-km 2005 Lowest 7.69 7.75 [7.64–7.87]  
36-km 2005 Highest 12.75 9.35 [9.23–9.47] 20.57 
12-km 2004 Lowest 7.78 7.78 [7.66–7.89]  
12-km 2004 Highest 11.77 9.03 [8.92–9.14] 16.11 
12-km 2005 Lowest 8.41 8.03 [7.91–8.16]  
12-km 2005 Highest 12.38 9.37 [9.26–9.49] 16.72 
Ground 2004 Lowest 9.43 6.78 [6.54–7.02]  
Ground 2004 Highest 12.69 8.43 [8.19–8.69] 24.42 
Ground 2005 Lowest 9.51 6.95 [6.67–7.22]  
Ground 2005 Highest 13.65 8.86 [8.57–9.15] 27.59 
PM modelYearQuartileMean PM2.5 (μg/m3) by quartile*Mean [95%CI] diabetes prevalenceIncreased diabetes prevalence (%)
36-km 2004 Lowest 7.71 7.51 [7.41–7.62]  
36-km 2004 Highest 12.11 8.95 [8.85–9.06] 19.11 
36-km 2005 Lowest 7.69 7.75 [7.64–7.87]  
36-km 2005 Highest 12.75 9.35 [9.23–9.47] 20.57 
12-km 2004 Lowest 7.78 7.78 [7.66–7.89]  
12-km 2004 Highest 11.77 9.03 [8.92–9.14] 16.11 
12-km 2005 Lowest 8.41 8.03 [7.91–8.16]  
12-km 2005 Highest 12.38 9.37 [9.26–9.49] 16.72 
Ground 2004 Lowest 9.43 6.78 [6.54–7.02]  
Ground 2004 Highest 12.69 8.43 [8.19–8.69] 24.42 
Ground 2005 Lowest 9.51 6.95 [6.67–7.22]  
Ground 2005 Highest 13.65 8.86 [8.57–9.15] 27.59 

Comparison of mean diabetes prevalence in the lowest and highest PM2.5 quartiles for all counties within the EPA PM2.5 limit (<15 μg/m3). The data are unadjusted for the previously mentioned covariates.

*Mean PM2.5 value for the lowest quartile is presented first, followed by mean PM2.5 value for the highest quartile for the same year and model.

†Represents diabetes prevalence of selected PM quartile.

‡Statistically significant result: P < 0.01.

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