Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Clinical and laboratory characteristics at baseline between progressors and nonprogressors by renal status

Normal renal status
Significant CKD
Progressors n = 263Nonprogressors n = 601PProgressors n = 75Nonprogressors n = 30P
Age (years) 42 ± 8 37 ± 8 <0.0001 41 ± 8 35 ± 8 0.0005 
Male (%) 64 38 <0.0001 62 70 0.47 
Type 1 diabetes (%) 47 40 0.03 80 63 0.07 
Smoking current (%) 12 0.03 11 10 0.90 
Smoking ever (%) 22 19 0.31 29 20 0.31 
Hypertension (%) 24 <0.0001 47 31 0.13 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 119 ± 13 112 ± 11 <0.0001 122 ± 14 121 ± 14 0.82 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 ± 9 76 ± 7 <0.0001 80 ± 10 81 ± 10 0.81 
Baseline square root CAC volume 3.5 ± 5.9 0.22 ± 1.0 <0.0001 5.5 ± 9.0 0.9 ± 2.4 0.006 
BMI (kg/m227 ± 4 25 ± 4 <0.0001 26 ± 4 27 ± 4 0.82 
Waist circumference (cm)       
    Male 96 ± 11 88 ± 10 <0.0001 93 ± 10 91 ± 11 0.56 
    Female 84 ± 13 78 ± 11 <0.0001 84 ± 14 78 ± 12 0.42 
Waist-to-hip ratio       
    Male 0.90 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.06 <0.0001 0.89 ± 0.05 0.88 ± 0.05 0.30 
    Female 0.78 ± 0.06 0.76 ± 0.06 0.002 0.79 ± 0.07 0.79 ± 0.07 0.97 
Uric acid (mg/dl)       
    Male 5.9 (5.2–6.8) 5.8 (5.2–6.4) 0.42 6.2 (5.4–7.3) 6.5 (5.6–7.7) 0.32 
    Female 4.8 (4.2–5.4) 4.5 (4.0–5.1) 0.01 5.3 (4.6–5.8) 5.0 (4.5–5.9) 0.52 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 183 ± 36 183 ± 36 0.27 184 ± 35 179 ± 41 0.76 
HDL (mg/dl) 49 ± 14 55 ± 16 <0.0001 53 ± 16 49 ± 14 0.29 
LDL (mg/dl) 111 ± 32 106 ± 32 0.03 107 ± 30 107 ± 31 0.88 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 105 (73–149) 90 (64–121) <0.0001 96 (62–138) 107 (71–139) 0.41 
A1C (%)       
    Type 1 diabetes 7.8 ± 1.1 7.7 ± 1.2 0.85 8.3 ± 1.3 7.9 ± 0.9 0.20 
    Control subjects 5.6 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.3 <0.0001 5.8 ± 0.5 5.4 ± 0.4 0.03 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 1.1 (1.1–1.3) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.009 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.4 (1.2–1.8) 0.18 
Cystatin C (mg/l) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 0.76 (0.69–0.82) 0.007 0.95 (0.79–0.96) 0.92 (0.76–1.03) 0.84 
ACR (mg/g creatinine) 4.8 (3.2–6.6) 4.4 (3.2–5.7) 0.03 59.7 (26–179) 51 (15–276) 0.69 
ACE inhibitors/ARB use (%) 16 0.001 57 20 0.0005 
Thiazide diuretic use (%) 2.3 0.04 18 0.001 
Statin use (%) 17 <0.0001 25 10 0.08 
Alcohol intake positive (%) 79 77 0.86 59 75 0.05 
Number of alcohol drinks/month 21 ± 35 15 ± 25 0.02 11 ± 21 11 ± 18 0.90 
MetS (%) 18.2 8.3 <0.0001 30.6 13.3 0.06 
Normal renal status
Significant CKD
Progressors n = 263Nonprogressors n = 601PProgressors n = 75Nonprogressors n = 30P
Age (years) 42 ± 8 37 ± 8 <0.0001 41 ± 8 35 ± 8 0.0005 
Male (%) 64 38 <0.0001 62 70 0.47 
Type 1 diabetes (%) 47 40 0.03 80 63 0.07 
Smoking current (%) 12 0.03 11 10 0.90 
Smoking ever (%) 22 19 0.31 29 20 0.31 
Hypertension (%) 24 <0.0001 47 31 0.13 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 119 ± 13 112 ± 11 <0.0001 122 ± 14 121 ± 14 0.82 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80 ± 9 76 ± 7 <0.0001 80 ± 10 81 ± 10 0.81 
Baseline square root CAC volume 3.5 ± 5.9 0.22 ± 1.0 <0.0001 5.5 ± 9.0 0.9 ± 2.4 0.006 
BMI (kg/m227 ± 4 25 ± 4 <0.0001 26 ± 4 27 ± 4 0.82 
Waist circumference (cm)       
    Male 96 ± 11 88 ± 10 <0.0001 93 ± 10 91 ± 11 0.56 
    Female 84 ± 13 78 ± 11 <0.0001 84 ± 14 78 ± 12 0.42 
Waist-to-hip ratio       
    Male 0.90 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.06 <0.0001 0.89 ± 0.05 0.88 ± 0.05 0.30 
    Female 0.78 ± 0.06 0.76 ± 0.06 0.002 0.79 ± 0.07 0.79 ± 0.07 0.97 
Uric acid (mg/dl)       
    Male 5.9 (5.2–6.8) 5.8 (5.2–6.4) 0.42 6.2 (5.4–7.3) 6.5 (5.6–7.7) 0.32 
    Female 4.8 (4.2–5.4) 4.5 (4.0–5.1) 0.01 5.3 (4.6–5.8) 5.0 (4.5–5.9) 0.52 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 183 ± 36 183 ± 36 0.27 184 ± 35 179 ± 41 0.76 
HDL (mg/dl) 49 ± 14 55 ± 16 <0.0001 53 ± 16 49 ± 14 0.29 
LDL (mg/dl) 111 ± 32 106 ± 32 0.03 107 ± 30 107 ± 31 0.88 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 105 (73–149) 90 (64–121) <0.0001 96 (62–138) 107 (71–139) 0.41 
A1C (%)       
    Type 1 diabetes 7.8 ± 1.1 7.7 ± 1.2 0.85 8.3 ± 1.3 7.9 ± 0.9 0.20 
    Control subjects 5.6 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.3 <0.0001 5.8 ± 0.5 5.4 ± 0.4 0.03 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 1.1 (1.1–1.3) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.009 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.4 (1.2–1.8) 0.18 
Cystatin C (mg/l) 0.78 (0.72–0.84) 0.76 (0.69–0.82) 0.007 0.95 (0.79–0.96) 0.92 (0.76–1.03) 0.84 
ACR (mg/g creatinine) 4.8 (3.2–6.6) 4.4 (3.2–5.7) 0.03 59.7 (26–179) 51 (15–276) 0.69 
ACE inhibitors/ARB use (%) 16 0.001 57 20 0.0005 
Thiazide diuretic use (%) 2.3 0.04 18 0.001 
Statin use (%) 17 <0.0001 25 10 0.08 
Alcohol intake positive (%) 79 77 0.86 59 75 0.05 
Number of alcohol drinks/month 21 ± 35 15 ± 25 0.02 11 ± 21 11 ± 18 0.90 
MetS (%) 18.2 8.3 <0.0001 30.6 13.3 0.06 

Data are means ± SD, %, or geometric means (interquartile range). Any alcohol intake is defined as 12 or more drinks during their lifetime. Drinks per month are a combination of standard amounts of beer (12 oz.), wine (3.5 oz.), or hard liquor (1.5 oz.). ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; BP, blood pressure.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal