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Table 1

Glucose, insulin, and GIP concentrations and AUC during an OGTT following ingestion of placebo, decaffeinated coffee, caffeinated coffee, and caffeine in 11 healthy young men

T = −90T = −60T = 0T = 10T = 30T = 60T = 90T = 1203-h AUC
Glucose (mmol/l)          
    Placebo 4.50 ± 0.15 4.25 ± 0.14 4.35 ± 0.19 4.57 ± 0.20a 6.66 ± 0.28a 7.38 ± 0.70 6.95 ± 0.79 5.45 ± 0.57 4.35 ± 1.01a,b 
    Decaffeinated coffee 4.55 ± 0.17 4.34 ± 0.16 4.44 ± 0.18 5.25 ± 0.28b 8.13 ± 0.41b 6.86 ± 0.61 5.99 ± 0.48 5.09 ± 0.45 4.1 ± 0.67b 
    Caffeinated coffee 4.29 ± 0.14 4.29 ± 0.09 4.62 ± 0.11 5.51 ± 0.26b 7.63 ± 0.39b 8.11 ± 0.43 7.14 ± 0.32 5.96 ± 0.35 5.63 ± 0.38a,b 
    Caffeine 4.33 ± 0.13 4.18 ± 0.14 4.31 ± 0.12 5.04 ± 0.18b 7.44 ± 0.26b 7.87 ± 0.75 7.00 ± 0.69 6.05 ± 0.64 5.39 ± 0.80a 
Insulin (Φmol /l)          
    Placebo 105.3 ± 33.3 85.1 ± 25.6 71.2 ± 17.4 124.8 ± 21.7a 331.2 ± 51.8a 421.4 ± 44.0a 413.4 ± 51.2 296.4 ± 55.2 489.4 ± 75.8a 
    Decaffeinated coffee 114.7 ± 28.4 80.2 ± 11.0 71.0 ± 9.9 231.0 ± 54.8b 537.4 ± 97.1b 518.1 ± 56.7b 489.8 ± 99.7 316.3 ± 54.5 705.5 ± 109.8b 
    Caffeinated coffee 102.7 ± 22.7 87.7 ± 10.7 75.7 ± 9.1 238.4 ± 59.1b 544.7 ± 97.4b 626.2 ± 109.6b 692.3 ± 140.7 457.2 ± 110.0 884.9 ± 159.4b 
    Caffeine 113.3 ± 29.0 103.7 ± 30.1 76.9 ± 10.8 202.9 ± 32.8b 555.8 ± 85.6b 717.8 ± 127.3b 669.8 ± 140.1 480.8 ± 124.8 882.0 ± 185.9b 
GIP (pg/ml)          
    Placebo 68.8 ± 15.3 65.0 ± 14.6 58.4 ± 16.9a 106.7 ± 17.7 157.3 ± 18.2 164.6 ± 17.1 166.0 ± 18.4 143.2 ± 17.9 164.9 ± 23.0a 
    Decaffeinated coffee 131.0 ± 31.9 91.3 ± 18.5 44.2 ± 7.1b 130.4 ± 13.4 187.4 ± 24.7 173.8 ± 20.4 160.1 ± 19.0 136.9 ± 16.9 109.4 ± 35.6a 
    Caffeinated coffee 83.5 ± 24.9 72.3 ± 14.0 43.8 ± 8.5a,b 120.2 ± 22.0 158.3 ± 23.2 148.1 ± 17.8 134.1 ± 12.9 124.0 ± 13.4 112.7 ± 30.2a 
    Caffeine 88.0 ± 29.1 77.7 ± 19.6 67.2 ± 10.8a 141.3 ± 28.3 174.6 ± 27.3 166.8 ± 20.5 159.3 ± 21.7 139.2 ± 21.7 150.8 ± 34.6a 
T = −90T = −60T = 0T = 10T = 30T = 60T = 90T = 1203-h AUC
Glucose (mmol/l)          
    Placebo 4.50 ± 0.15 4.25 ± 0.14 4.35 ± 0.19 4.57 ± 0.20a 6.66 ± 0.28a 7.38 ± 0.70 6.95 ± 0.79 5.45 ± 0.57 4.35 ± 1.01a,b 
    Decaffeinated coffee 4.55 ± 0.17 4.34 ± 0.16 4.44 ± 0.18 5.25 ± 0.28b 8.13 ± 0.41b 6.86 ± 0.61 5.99 ± 0.48 5.09 ± 0.45 4.1 ± 0.67b 
    Caffeinated coffee 4.29 ± 0.14 4.29 ± 0.09 4.62 ± 0.11 5.51 ± 0.26b 7.63 ± 0.39b 8.11 ± 0.43 7.14 ± 0.32 5.96 ± 0.35 5.63 ± 0.38a,b 
    Caffeine 4.33 ± 0.13 4.18 ± 0.14 4.31 ± 0.12 5.04 ± 0.18b 7.44 ± 0.26b 7.87 ± 0.75 7.00 ± 0.69 6.05 ± 0.64 5.39 ± 0.80a 
Insulin (Φmol /l)          
    Placebo 105.3 ± 33.3 85.1 ± 25.6 71.2 ± 17.4 124.8 ± 21.7a 331.2 ± 51.8a 421.4 ± 44.0a 413.4 ± 51.2 296.4 ± 55.2 489.4 ± 75.8a 
    Decaffeinated coffee 114.7 ± 28.4 80.2 ± 11.0 71.0 ± 9.9 231.0 ± 54.8b 537.4 ± 97.1b 518.1 ± 56.7b 489.8 ± 99.7 316.3 ± 54.5 705.5 ± 109.8b 
    Caffeinated coffee 102.7 ± 22.7 87.7 ± 10.7 75.7 ± 9.1 238.4 ± 59.1b 544.7 ± 97.4b 626.2 ± 109.6b 692.3 ± 140.7 457.2 ± 110.0 884.9 ± 159.4b 
    Caffeine 113.3 ± 29.0 103.7 ± 30.1 76.9 ± 10.8 202.9 ± 32.8b 555.8 ± 85.6b 717.8 ± 127.3b 669.8 ± 140.1 480.8 ± 124.8 882.0 ± 185.9b 
GIP (pg/ml)          
    Placebo 68.8 ± 15.3 65.0 ± 14.6 58.4 ± 16.9a 106.7 ± 17.7 157.3 ± 18.2 164.6 ± 17.1 166.0 ± 18.4 143.2 ± 17.9 164.9 ± 23.0a 
    Decaffeinated coffee 131.0 ± 31.9 91.3 ± 18.5 44.2 ± 7.1b 130.4 ± 13.4 187.4 ± 24.7 173.8 ± 20.4 160.1 ± 19.0 136.9 ± 16.9 109.4 ± 35.6a 
    Caffeinated coffee 83.5 ± 24.9 72.3 ± 14.0 43.8 ± 8.5a,b 120.2 ± 22.0 158.3 ± 23.2 148.1 ± 17.8 134.1 ± 12.9 124.0 ± 13.4 112.7 ± 30.2a 
    Caffeine 88.0 ± 29.1 77.7 ± 19.6 67.2 ± 10.8a 141.3 ± 28.3 174.6 ± 27.3 166.8 ± 20.5 159.3 ± 21.7 139.2 ± 21.7 150.8 ± 34.6a 

Data are means ± SEM. n = 11. T denotes time point in minutes. Initial values (T = −90 min) are fasting values. Beverage ingested at T = −60 min. OGTT started at T = 0 min. ISI was based on the formula of Belfiore et al. (11). Three-hour AUC was calculated between T = −60 and T = 120. Means in a column with different letter superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05), by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA for glucose and insulin and by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA for 3-h AUC. Post-hoc tests adjusted for multiple comparisons by means of a Tukey test.

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