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Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of ethnic groups

Indian AsiansWhite EuropeansP value*
n 180 180  
Sex (male/female) 95/85 96/84 0.9 
Age (years) 57.4 ± 9.9 59.1 ± 9.7 0.09 
Duration diabetes (years) 9.4 ± 7.5 7.0 ± 5.7 0.001 
Height (m) 1.61 ± 9.3 1.65 ± 9.8 <0.0001 
Weight (kg) 77.2 ± 14.8 93.3 ± 19.3 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m229.7 ± 5.5 34.1 ± 6.5 <0.0001 
Waist (cm)    
    Men 96.7 ± 13.1 106.6 ± 12.7 <0.0001 
    Women 97.1 ± 12.8 102.7 ± 15.1 0.01 
Hips (cm)    
    Men 99.6 ± 8.1 105.4 ± 8.7 <0.0001 
    Women 103.1 ± 11.3 111.0 ± 15.6 <0.0001 
Waist-to-hip ratio    
    Men 0.97 ± 0.09 1.01 ± 0.07 <0.0001 
    Women 0.94 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.08 0.2 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.7 ± 2.2 8.0 ± 2.3 0.2 
A1C (%) 8.1 ± 1.6 7.9 ± 1.7 0.3 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.3 ± 1.0 4.7 ± 1.1 0.004 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.4 0.7 
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.4) 0.005 
Insulin (mU/l) 17.1 (9.6, 27.0.1) 18.2 (11.5, 28.6) 0.44 
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l) 35.7 ± 34.4 58.7 ± 56.0 <0.0001 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 87.2 ± 31.2 85.9 ± 27.0 0.7 
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 1.5 (0.7, 2.5) 1.4 (0.6, 3.0) 0.6 
Retinopathy (%) 14 12 0.6 
Nephropathy (%) 0.3 
Hypertension (%) 54 74 0.0002 
Myocardial infarction (%) 17 13 0.3 
Angina (%) 23 17 0.2 
Coronary artery bypass graft (%) 14 0.1 
Resting heart rate (bpm) 76 ± 14 75 ± 13 0.8 
Ankle systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 ± 22 142 ± 31 0.06 
Brachial systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 17 127 ± 17 0.02 
ABPI <0.85 (%) 4.0 9.1 0.05 
Lower limb vascular intervention (%) 0.03 
Claudication (%) 15 0.01 
TCpO2 (mmHg) 61 ± 12 56 ± 13 <0.0001 
Pack-years smoked (%)   <0.0001 
    None 74 36  
    ≤20 14 22  
    >20 11 42  
Drink alcohol ≥ once a week (%) 42 <0.0001 
Insulin (%) 19 23 0.4 
Oral antidiabetic drugs (%) 87 76 0.007 
Antihypertensive drugs (%) 61 77 0.001 
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 57 71 0.006 
Other coronary heart disease drugs (%) 15 18 0.4 
Indian AsiansWhite EuropeansP value*
n 180 180  
Sex (male/female) 95/85 96/84 0.9 
Age (years) 57.4 ± 9.9 59.1 ± 9.7 0.09 
Duration diabetes (years) 9.4 ± 7.5 7.0 ± 5.7 0.001 
Height (m) 1.61 ± 9.3 1.65 ± 9.8 <0.0001 
Weight (kg) 77.2 ± 14.8 93.3 ± 19.3 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m229.7 ± 5.5 34.1 ± 6.5 <0.0001 
Waist (cm)    
    Men 96.7 ± 13.1 106.6 ± 12.7 <0.0001 
    Women 97.1 ± 12.8 102.7 ± 15.1 0.01 
Hips (cm)    
    Men 99.6 ± 8.1 105.4 ± 8.7 <0.0001 
    Women 103.1 ± 11.3 111.0 ± 15.6 <0.0001 
Waist-to-hip ratio    
    Men 0.97 ± 0.09 1.01 ± 0.07 <0.0001 
    Women 0.94 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.08 0.2 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.7 ± 2.2 8.0 ± 2.3 0.2 
A1C (%) 8.1 ± 1.6 7.9 ± 1.7 0.3 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.3 ± 1.0 4.7 ± 1.1 0.004 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.4 0.7 
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.4 (1.1, 1.9) 1.7 (1.2, 2.4) 0.005 
Insulin (mU/l) 17.1 (9.6, 27.0.1) 18.2 (11.5, 28.6) 0.44 
γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l) 35.7 ± 34.4 58.7 ± 56.0 <0.0001 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 87.2 ± 31.2 85.9 ± 27.0 0.7 
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 1.5 (0.7, 2.5) 1.4 (0.6, 3.0) 0.6 
Retinopathy (%) 14 12 0.6 
Nephropathy (%) 0.3 
Hypertension (%) 54 74 0.0002 
Myocardial infarction (%) 17 13 0.3 
Angina (%) 23 17 0.2 
Coronary artery bypass graft (%) 14 0.1 
Resting heart rate (bpm) 76 ± 14 75 ± 13 0.8 
Ankle systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 ± 22 142 ± 31 0.06 
Brachial systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 123 ± 17 127 ± 17 0.02 
ABPI <0.85 (%) 4.0 9.1 0.05 
Lower limb vascular intervention (%) 0.03 
Claudication (%) 15 0.01 
TCpO2 (mmHg) 61 ± 12 56 ± 13 <0.0001 
Pack-years smoked (%)   <0.0001 
    None 74 36  
    ≤20 14 22  
    >20 11 42  
Drink alcohol ≥ once a week (%) 42 <0.0001 
Insulin (%) 19 23 0.4 
Oral antidiabetic drugs (%) 87 76 0.007 
Antihypertensive drugs (%) 61 77 0.001 
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 57 71 0.006 
Other coronary heart disease drugs (%) 15 18 0.4 

Data are % prevalence, means ± SD, or geometric means (25th, 75th percentiles).

*P value for ethnic difference.

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