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Table 1

Demographic characteristics and cardiometabolic status of the offspring of mothers with NGT and GD after 15 years of follow-up

NGTGDP
n 87 42  
Baseline characteristics at index pregnancy    
    Birth weight (g) 3,273 (454) 3,248 (351) 0.76 
At 15 years of age    
    Maternal glycemic status at follow-up    
    AGT 18 (20.7%) 21 (50.0%) 0.001 
    DM 5 (5.7%) 10 (23.8%) 0.003 
Paternal history of DM 4 (4.6%) 1 (2.4%) 0.54 
Mean age 14.8 (0.8) 15.0 (0.8) 0.25 
Male:Female 46:41 (53:47) 19:23 (47:53) 0.42 
Tanner stage (interquartile range) 4 (3–4) 4 (3–4) 0.45 
Body weight (kg) 55.7 (12.5) 56.8 (12.0) 0.65 
Average weight gain since 8-year assessment (kg/year) 3.91 (1.22) 4.16 (1.32) 0.30 
Average weight gain since birth (kg/year) 3.55 (0.81) 3.59 (0.86) 0.80 
Body height (cm) 163.3 (7.6) 162.7 (8.6) 0.68 
Waist circumference (cm) 73.3 (10.1) 73.8 (9.9) 0.81 
Hip circumference (cm) 93.7 (8.2) 95.1 (7.4) 0.35 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.78 (0.05) 0.77 (0.06) 0.55 
Percentage of body fat (%) 22.5 (7.4) 24.4 (7.2) 0.17 
BMI (kg/m220.8 (3.8) 21.4 (3.7) 0.40 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 111 (10) 113 (10) 0.46 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 66 (8) 68 (7) 0.46 
Fasting PG (mmol/l) 4.7 (0.3) 4.6 (0.3) 0.51 
Second hour PG (mmol/l) 5.6 (1.4) 6.0 (1.5) 0.16 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.4 (0.3) 1.4 (0.2) 0.95 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.0 (0.6) 2.1 (0.5) 0.34 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.9 (0.6) 3.9 (0.6) 0.84 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.4) 0.9 (0.5) 0.48 
Children's glycemic status    
    IFG 1 (1.1%) 0.77* 
    IGT 8 (9.2%) 4 (9.8%) 0.77* 
    DM 1 (2.4%) 0.77* 
HDL-C <1.03 mmol/l 3 (3.4%) 2 (4.8%) 0.72 
Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/l 6 (6.9%) 4 (9.5%) 0.60 
Fasting PG ≥5.6 mmol/l or IGT or DM 9 (10.3%) 5 (11.9%) 0.79 
Waist circumference ≥90th percentile 29 (33.3%) 17 (40.5%) 0.43 
BP ≥ 90th percentile 8 (9.2) 4 (9.5) 0.95 
Metabolic syndrome 3 (3.4%) 3 (7.1%) 0.35 
NGTGDP
n 87 42  
Baseline characteristics at index pregnancy    
    Birth weight (g) 3,273 (454) 3,248 (351) 0.76 
At 15 years of age    
    Maternal glycemic status at follow-up    
    AGT 18 (20.7%) 21 (50.0%) 0.001 
    DM 5 (5.7%) 10 (23.8%) 0.003 
Paternal history of DM 4 (4.6%) 1 (2.4%) 0.54 
Mean age 14.8 (0.8) 15.0 (0.8) 0.25 
Male:Female 46:41 (53:47) 19:23 (47:53) 0.42 
Tanner stage (interquartile range) 4 (3–4) 4 (3–4) 0.45 
Body weight (kg) 55.7 (12.5) 56.8 (12.0) 0.65 
Average weight gain since 8-year assessment (kg/year) 3.91 (1.22) 4.16 (1.32) 0.30 
Average weight gain since birth (kg/year) 3.55 (0.81) 3.59 (0.86) 0.80 
Body height (cm) 163.3 (7.6) 162.7 (8.6) 0.68 
Waist circumference (cm) 73.3 (10.1) 73.8 (9.9) 0.81 
Hip circumference (cm) 93.7 (8.2) 95.1 (7.4) 0.35 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.78 (0.05) 0.77 (0.06) 0.55 
Percentage of body fat (%) 22.5 (7.4) 24.4 (7.2) 0.17 
BMI (kg/m220.8 (3.8) 21.4 (3.7) 0.40 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 111 (10) 113 (10) 0.46 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 66 (8) 68 (7) 0.46 
Fasting PG (mmol/l) 4.7 (0.3) 4.6 (0.3) 0.51 
Second hour PG (mmol/l) 5.6 (1.4) 6.0 (1.5) 0.16 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.4 (0.3) 1.4 (0.2) 0.95 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.0 (0.6) 2.1 (0.5) 0.34 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.9 (0.6) 3.9 (0.6) 0.84 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.4) 0.9 (0.5) 0.48 
Children's glycemic status    
    IFG 1 (1.1%) 0.77* 
    IGT 8 (9.2%) 4 (9.8%) 0.77* 
    DM 1 (2.4%) 0.77* 
HDL-C <1.03 mmol/l 3 (3.4%) 2 (4.8%) 0.72 
Triglyceride ≥1.7 mmol/l 6 (6.9%) 4 (9.5%) 0.60 
Fasting PG ≥5.6 mmol/l or IGT or DM 9 (10.3%) 5 (11.9%) 0.79 
Waist circumference ≥90th percentile 29 (33.3%) 17 (40.5%) 0.43 
BP ≥ 90th percentile 8 (9.2) 4 (9.5) 0.95 
Metabolic syndrome 3 (3.4%) 3 (7.1%) 0.35 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*P value calculated based on the rate of AGT (include IFG, IGT, or DM).

†According to the age- and sex-specific reference range in the Hong Kong Chinese population. PG, plasma glucose.

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