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Table 1

Characteristics of adults aged 18 years and older with and without iron deficiency, NHANES 1999–2006

Women
Men
Iron deficiencyNo iron deficiencyP*Iron deficiencyNo iron deficiencyP*
Sample size 1,150 (13.7) 5,516 (86.3)  75 (1.6) 3,794 (98.4) <0.001 
Age       
    <50 years 88.7 69.4 <0.001 63.7 71.2 0.216 
    ≥50 years 11.3 30.6  36.3 28.9  
Race/ethnicity (%)       
    Non-Hispanic white 56.7 72.4 <0.001 75.0 71.8 0.876 
    African American 18.2 10.9  9.8 9.7  
    Hispanic 20.7 12.3  11.5 15.0  
    Other 4.4 4.4  3.7 3.6  
BMI (%)       
    <25 kg/m2 35.7 44.1 <0.001 28.0 36.4 0.225 
    25 to <30 kg/m2 24.1 26.6  35.2 40.4  
    ≥30 kg/m2 40.3 29.3  36.8 23.3  
Waist circumference (cm) 94.2 ± 0.8 91.1 ± 0.4 <0.001 107.8 ± 3.3 97.0 ± 0.3 0.002 
Parity (women only) (%)       
    0 24.3 27.3 0.157    
    1 15.9 16.5     
    2 25.6 27.3     
    3 18.7 17.3     
    4 9.1 6.3     
    ≥5 births 6.4 5.3     
Hysterectomy (women only) (%) 5.6 17.6 <0.001    
Anemia (%) 29.5 2.3 <0.001 33.3 3.3 <0.001 
A1C (%) 5.31 ± 0.02 5.27 ± 0.01 0.127 5.43 ± 0.06 5.29 ± 0.02 0.035 
A1C (%)       
    <5.4 73.6 76.5 0.366 54.7 73.9 <0.001 
    5.5–6.0 23.9 20.5  37.9 22.5  
    6.1–6.4 1.5 1.7  7.3 2.0  
    6.5–6.9 0.4 0.6  0.0 0.6  
    7.0–7.9 0.3 0.3  0.0 0.4  
    8.0–8.9 0.2 0.1  0.1 0.2  
    ≥9.0 0.3 0.3  0.0 0.4  
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) (n = 2,993 women, n = 1,799 men) 92.4 ± 0.8 94.2 ± 0.5 0.034 101.5 ± 2.3 98.8 ± 0.6 0.269 
Fasting glucose <126 mg/dl (n = 2,993 women, n = 1,799 men) (%) 99.2 98.5 0.096 100.0 97.3 <0.001 
Women
Men
Iron deficiencyNo iron deficiencyP*Iron deficiencyNo iron deficiencyP*
Sample size 1,150 (13.7) 5,516 (86.3)  75 (1.6) 3,794 (98.4) <0.001 
Age       
    <50 years 88.7 69.4 <0.001 63.7 71.2 0.216 
    ≥50 years 11.3 30.6  36.3 28.9  
Race/ethnicity (%)       
    Non-Hispanic white 56.7 72.4 <0.001 75.0 71.8 0.876 
    African American 18.2 10.9  9.8 9.7  
    Hispanic 20.7 12.3  11.5 15.0  
    Other 4.4 4.4  3.7 3.6  
BMI (%)       
    <25 kg/m2 35.7 44.1 <0.001 28.0 36.4 0.225 
    25 to <30 kg/m2 24.1 26.6  35.2 40.4  
    ≥30 kg/m2 40.3 29.3  36.8 23.3  
Waist circumference (cm) 94.2 ± 0.8 91.1 ± 0.4 <0.001 107.8 ± 3.3 97.0 ± 0.3 0.002 
Parity (women only) (%)       
    0 24.3 27.3 0.157    
    1 15.9 16.5     
    2 25.6 27.3     
    3 18.7 17.3     
    4 9.1 6.3     
    ≥5 births 6.4 5.3     
Hysterectomy (women only) (%) 5.6 17.6 <0.001    
Anemia (%) 29.5 2.3 <0.001 33.3 3.3 <0.001 
A1C (%) 5.31 ± 0.02 5.27 ± 0.01 0.127 5.43 ± 0.06 5.29 ± 0.02 0.035 
A1C (%)       
    <5.4 73.6 76.5 0.366 54.7 73.9 <0.001 
    5.5–6.0 23.9 20.5  37.9 22.5  
    6.1–6.4 1.5 1.7  7.3 2.0  
    6.5–6.9 0.4 0.6  0.0 0.6  
    7.0–7.9 0.3 0.3  0.0 0.4  
    8.0–8.9 0.2 0.1  0.1 0.2  
    ≥9.0 0.3 0.3  0.0 0.4  
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) (n = 2,993 women, n = 1,799 men) 92.4 ± 0.8 94.2 ± 0.5 0.034 101.5 ± 2.3 98.8 ± 0.6 0.269 
Fasting glucose <126 mg/dl (n = 2,993 women, n = 1,799 men) (%) 99.2 98.5 0.096 100.0 97.3 <0.001 

Data are n (%), weighted percentage, or means ± SE adjusted for complex survey design. Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding, and percentages may differ from unweighted calculations of percentages.

*P value was determined by a design-corrected χ2 test or t test.

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