Skip to Main Content
Table 2

AI/AN subgroup, baseline and 6-month changes

Outcome variableBaseline
6-month change
ControlTreatmentControlTreatmentControl vs. treatment
Effect sizeP (ITT)P
n 50 60 38 35    
A1C↓ 6.71 ± 1.25 7.12 ± 1.59 0.206 ± 0.973 −0.088 ± 1.24 0.251 0.288 0.379 
Health distress (0–5)↓ 2.26 ± 1.24 2.06 ± 1.24 −0.151 ± 0.730 −0.714 ± 0.993 0.484 0.025 0.004 
Activity limitation (0–4)↓ 1.48 ± 1.12 1.14 ± 1.03 0.092 ± 0.843 −0.257 ± 0.986 0.337 0.028 0.012 
PHQ depression (0–27)↓ 8.60 ± 6.35 8.33 ± 5.67 −0.737 ± 3.84 −1.600 ± 5.33 0.146 0.677 0.214 
PAM patient activation (0–100)↑ 63.3 ± 15.8 63.8 ± 14.8 4.47 ± 16.4 3.78 ± 13.3 −0.054 0.612 0.722 
Self-efficacy (1–10)↑ 6.74 ± 1.86 6.39 ± 2.29 −0.056 ± 1.40 0.350 ± 2.40 0.214 0.896 0.584 
Aerobic exercise (min/week)↑ 93.1 ± 133 81.2 ± 103 3.32 ± 118 18.62 ± 112 0.111 0.789 0.810 
Physician visits (last 6 months) 3.42 ± 3.53 3.17 ± 3.38 −0.658 ± 1.86 0.914 ± 3.85 0.494 0.051 0.019 
Outcome variableBaseline
6-month change
ControlTreatmentControlTreatmentControl vs. treatment
Effect sizeP (ITT)P
n 50 60 38 35    
A1C↓ 6.71 ± 1.25 7.12 ± 1.59 0.206 ± 0.973 −0.088 ± 1.24 0.251 0.288 0.379 
Health distress (0–5)↓ 2.26 ± 1.24 2.06 ± 1.24 −0.151 ± 0.730 −0.714 ± 0.993 0.484 0.025 0.004 
Activity limitation (0–4)↓ 1.48 ± 1.12 1.14 ± 1.03 0.092 ± 0.843 −0.257 ± 0.986 0.337 0.028 0.012 
PHQ depression (0–27)↓ 8.60 ± 6.35 8.33 ± 5.67 −0.737 ± 3.84 −1.600 ± 5.33 0.146 0.677 0.214 
PAM patient activation (0–100)↑ 63.3 ± 15.8 63.8 ± 14.8 4.47 ± 16.4 3.78 ± 13.3 −0.054 0.612 0.722 
Self-efficacy (1–10)↑ 6.74 ± 1.86 6.39 ± 2.29 −0.056 ± 1.40 0.350 ± 2.40 0.214 0.896 0.584 
Aerobic exercise (min/week)↑ 93.1 ± 133 81.2 ± 103 3.32 ± 118 18.62 ± 112 0.111 0.789 0.810 
Physician visits (last 6 months) 3.42 ± 3.53 3.17 ± 3.38 −0.658 ± 1.86 0.914 ± 3.85 0.494 0.051 0.019 

Data are means ± SD. Effect sizes are computed as the difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by the pooled baseline SD. Negative effect sizes indicate that the control group did better than the treatment group. P values are from ANCOVA models controlling for baseline outcome variable and demographic variables and assess the likelihood that there would have been no difference between the treatment and control group. Possible ranges are given in parentheses next to outcome variable names, and arrows indicate desirable directions. Significant P-values are bolded.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal