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Table 1

Subject characteristics

Nondiabetic control subjectsType 1 diabetesP
n 78 259  
Age (years) 15.5 ± 2.2 15.4 ± 2.2 0.73 
Sex (% male) 44 50 0.31 
Race/ethnicity (% non-Hispanic white) 69 80 0.03 
Diabetes duration (years) NA 8.7 ± 2.9 NA 
Tanner stage [n (%)]*    
 I 3 (4) 7 (3)  
 II 9 (12) 21 (8)  
 III 11 (14) 26 (10)  
 IV 20 (26) 72 (28)  
 V 33 (42) 133 (51) 0.08 
Cystatin C (mg/L) 0.698 ± 0.083 0.688 ± 0.127 0.40 
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.71 ± 0.15 0.65 ± 0.14 0.003 
BMI z score 0.22 ± 1.07 0.62 ± 0.77 0.003 
HbA1c (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 8.9 ± 1.6 <0.0001 
CRP (mg/dL) 0.40 (0.07–2.62) 0.63 (0.13–3.81) 0.004 
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (μg/mg) 10 (4–53) 9 (3–26) 0.39 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 109 ± 8 113 ± 8 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 64 ± 6 68 ± 7 <0.0001 
ACE/ARB [n (%)] 1 (0.4) NA 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 147 ± 27 158 ± 35 0.006 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 49 ± 9 51 ± 10 0.06 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 82 ± 22 89 ± 27 0.03 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 75 (46–134) 76 (46–140) 0.82 
Statin use [n (%)] 4 (1.5) NA 
Nondiabetic control subjectsType 1 diabetesP
n 78 259  
Age (years) 15.5 ± 2.2 15.4 ± 2.2 0.73 
Sex (% male) 44 50 0.31 
Race/ethnicity (% non-Hispanic white) 69 80 0.03 
Diabetes duration (years) NA 8.7 ± 2.9 NA 
Tanner stage [n (%)]*    
 I 3 (4) 7 (3)  
 II 9 (12) 21 (8)  
 III 11 (14) 26 (10)  
 IV 20 (26) 72 (28)  
 V 33 (42) 133 (51) 0.08 
Cystatin C (mg/L) 0.698 ± 0.083 0.688 ± 0.127 0.40 
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.71 ± 0.15 0.65 ± 0.14 0.003 
BMI z score 0.22 ± 1.07 0.62 ± 0.77 0.003 
HbA1c (%) 5.3 ± 0.3 8.9 ± 1.6 <0.0001 
CRP (mg/dL) 0.40 (0.07–2.62) 0.63 (0.13–3.81) 0.004 
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (μg/mg) 10 (4–53) 9 (3–26) 0.39 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 109 ± 8 113 ± 8 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 64 ± 6 68 ± 7 <0.0001 
ACE/ARB [n (%)] 1 (0.4) NA 
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 147 ± 27 158 ± 35 0.006 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 49 ± 9 51 ± 10 0.06 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 82 ± 22 89 ± 27 0.03 
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 75 (46–134) 76 (46–140) 0.82 
Statin use [n (%)] 4 (1.5) NA 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

*Tanner stage was missing for two nondiabetic control subjects.

†Geometric mean and 10–90th percentile.

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