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Table 3

Rates and counts of diabetes encounters, A1C tests, cholesterol tests, BP measurements, and changes in A1C, BP, and LDL control in adult diabetes patients of intervention and control group PCPs in the pre- and postintervention periods

Intervention clinics
Control clinics
Intervention effectaP (t × c)b
BaselinePostinterventionChangeBaselinePostinterventionChange
Proportion (95% CI) of patients with one or more encounters or tests (n = 3,417)         
    Diabetes encounters 0.889 (0.866–0.908) 0.946 (0.931–0.958) +0.057* 0.886 (0.861–0.907) 0.933 (0.915–0.947) +0.047* +0.010 0.27 
    A1C test 0.858 (0.827–0.884) 0.907 (0.884–0.926) +0.049* 0.872 (0.842–0.897) 0.906 (0.882–0.926) +0.034 +0.015 0.41 
    BP obtained 0.992 (0.986–0.995) 0.985 (0.978–0.990) −0.007 0.985 (0.978–0.990) 0.986 (0.979–0.991) +0.001 −0.008 0.13 
    LDL test 0.849 (0.819–0.875) 0.886 (0.861–0.907) +0.037 0.833 (0.801–0.862) 0.854 (0.824–0.880) +0.021 +0.016 0.22 
Mean (95% CI) of number of encounters or tests per patient (n = 3,417)         
    Number of diabetes encounters 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.3 (3.8–4.7) +0.16 4.5 (4.1–4.9) 4.8 (4.4–5.2) +0.31 −0.15 0.39 
    Number of A1C test 1.9 (1.7–2.0) 2.1 (2.0–2.3) +0.24* 2.1 (1.9–2.2) 2.2 (2.1–2.4) +0.14 +0.09 0.12 
    Number of LDL tests 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 1.6 (1.5–1.8) +0.13 1.5 (1.3–1.6) 1.5 (1.3–1.6) +0.02 +0.11 0.07 
Mean (95% CI) of test values and proportion (95% CI) at goalc         
    A1C 8.4 (8.3–8.6) 7.9 (7.7–8.1) −0.53* 8.4 (8.3–8.6) 8.1 (7.9–8.3) −0.33* −0.19 0.034 
    A1C <7%  0.292 (0.257–0.329)   0.225 (0.193–0.261)   0.009 
    SBP (mmHg) 138.9 (137.2–140.7) 130.9 (129.1–132.6) −8.1* 139.5 (137.7–141.3) 131.3 (129.5–133.2) −8.2* +0.06 0.965 
    SBP <130 mmHg  0.502 (0.446–0.558)   0.529 (0.470–0.587)   0.509 
    DBP (mmHg) 80.2 (79.0–81.3) 75.5 (74.3–76.7) −4.6* 80.2 (78.9–81.5) 76.4 (75.2–77.7) −3.8 −0.9 0.257 
    DBP <80 (mmHg)  0.606 (0.545–0.663)   0.590 (0.526–0.651)   0.714 
    LDL (mg/dl) 122.0 (119.1–125.0) 103.8 (100.7–106.8) −18.3* 123.6 (120.4–126.8) 100.3 (96.9–103.7) −23.3* +5.1 0.039 
    LDL <100 mg/dl or <70 mg/dl with CHD  0.413 (0.363–0.466)   0.414 (0.359–0.470)   0.998 
Intervention clinics
Control clinics
Intervention effectaP (t × c)b
BaselinePostinterventionChangeBaselinePostinterventionChange
Proportion (95% CI) of patients with one or more encounters or tests (n = 3,417)         
    Diabetes encounters 0.889 (0.866–0.908) 0.946 (0.931–0.958) +0.057* 0.886 (0.861–0.907) 0.933 (0.915–0.947) +0.047* +0.010 0.27 
    A1C test 0.858 (0.827–0.884) 0.907 (0.884–0.926) +0.049* 0.872 (0.842–0.897) 0.906 (0.882–0.926) +0.034 +0.015 0.41 
    BP obtained 0.992 (0.986–0.995) 0.985 (0.978–0.990) −0.007 0.985 (0.978–0.990) 0.986 (0.979–0.991) +0.001 −0.008 0.13 
    LDL test 0.849 (0.819–0.875) 0.886 (0.861–0.907) +0.037 0.833 (0.801–0.862) 0.854 (0.824–0.880) +0.021 +0.016 0.22 
Mean (95% CI) of number of encounters or tests per patient (n = 3,417)         
    Number of diabetes encounters 4.1 (3.7–4.5) 4.3 (3.8–4.7) +0.16 4.5 (4.1–4.9) 4.8 (4.4–5.2) +0.31 −0.15 0.39 
    Number of A1C test 1.9 (1.7–2.0) 2.1 (2.0–2.3) +0.24* 2.1 (1.9–2.2) 2.2 (2.1–2.4) +0.14 +0.09 0.12 
    Number of LDL tests 1.5 (1.4–1.6) 1.6 (1.5–1.8) +0.13 1.5 (1.3–1.6) 1.5 (1.3–1.6) +0.02 +0.11 0.07 
Mean (95% CI) of test values and proportion (95% CI) at goalc         
    A1C 8.4 (8.3–8.6) 7.9 (7.7–8.1) −0.53* 8.4 (8.3–8.6) 8.1 (7.9–8.3) −0.33* −0.19 0.034 
    A1C <7%  0.292 (0.257–0.329)   0.225 (0.193–0.261)   0.009 
    SBP (mmHg) 138.9 (137.2–140.7) 130.9 (129.1–132.6) −8.1* 139.5 (137.7–141.3) 131.3 (129.5–133.2) −8.2* +0.06 0.965 
    SBP <130 mmHg  0.502 (0.446–0.558)   0.529 (0.470–0.587)   0.509 
    DBP (mmHg) 80.2 (79.0–81.3) 75.5 (74.3–76.7) −4.6* 80.2 (78.9–81.5) 76.4 (75.2–77.7) −3.8 −0.9 0.257 
    DBP <80 (mmHg)  0.606 (0.545–0.663)   0.590 (0.526–0.651)   0.714 
    LDL (mg/dl) 122.0 (119.1–125.0) 103.8 (100.7–106.8) −18.3* 123.6 (120.4–126.8) 100.3 (96.9–103.7) −23.3* +5.1 0.039 
    LDL <100 mg/dl or <70 mg/dl with CHD  0.413 (0.363–0.466)   0.414 (0.359–0.470)   0.998 

P < 0.05;

P < 0.01;

*P < 0.001.

aThe intervention effect column illustrates the differential amount of change in the intervention arm relative to the control arm comparing pre- to postintervention.

bP value associated with the time × condition term in a generalized linear mixed model with repeated time measurements, study arm, and their interaction.

cFor A1C and LDL test values, baseline is the last preintervention value. For SBP and DBP, baseline is the first postintervention test. For all test values, follow-up is the last postintervention value. Separate test value analyses consists of those with baseline A1C ≥7 (n = 1,403). SBP ≥130 and/or DBP ≥80 at the last preintervention test and first postintervention test (n = 920), LDL ≥100 (>70 for CHD patients) (n = 1,069). BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; CHD, coronary heart disease.

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