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Table 1

Physical activity and metabolic outcomes at various time points for women in the control group and exercise intervention group

12 weeks
20 weeks
28 weeks
36 weeks
ControlInterventionPControlInterventionPControlInterventionPControlInterventionP
n 25 25  19 21  19 22  16 19  
MET h/week [median (IQ range)] 6.7 (7.529.7 (10.12) 0.23 9.9 (22.5) 16.9 (22.2) 0.16 7.5 (14.1) 15.0 (11.2) 0.067 2.8 (9.0) 9.6 (11.0) 0.05 
>900 kcal/week [n (%)] 7 (28%) 10 (40%) 0.37 9 (47%) 15 (71%) 0.12 8 (42%) 16 (73%) 0.04 5 (31%) 10 (53%) 0.2 
HOMA-IR [mean (SD)] 2.49 (1.04) 2.74 (1.72) 0.73 2.21 (1.0) 2.13 (1.68) 0.40 3.53 (1.96) 2.89 (1.27) 0.11 3.82 (3.0) 3.04 (1.84) 0.18 
Fasting insulin [mean (SD)] 12.42 (5.06) 13.76 (8.94) 0.74 11.42 (4.68) 10.95 (4.52) 0.37 16.78 (7.85) 14.67 (5.85) 0.17 20.28 (10.8) 14.59 (8.51) 0.05 
Fasting glucose [mean (SD)] 4.46 (0.47) 4.47 (0.39) 0.55 4.33 (0.40) 4.28 (0.44) 0.35 4.67 (0.54) 4.38 (0.48) 0.03 4.29 (0.66) 4.18 (0.47) 0.29 
GDM [n (%)] 0 (0%) 3 (12%) 0.07    3 (16%) 5 (23%) 0.57    
12 weeks
20 weeks
28 weeks
36 weeks
ControlInterventionPControlInterventionPControlInterventionPControlInterventionP
n 25 25  19 21  19 22  16 19  
MET h/week [median (IQ range)] 6.7 (7.529.7 (10.12) 0.23 9.9 (22.5) 16.9 (22.2) 0.16 7.5 (14.1) 15.0 (11.2) 0.067 2.8 (9.0) 9.6 (11.0) 0.05 
>900 kcal/week [n (%)] 7 (28%) 10 (40%) 0.37 9 (47%) 15 (71%) 0.12 8 (42%) 16 (73%) 0.04 5 (31%) 10 (53%) 0.2 
HOMA-IR [mean (SD)] 2.49 (1.04) 2.74 (1.72) 0.73 2.21 (1.0) 2.13 (1.68) 0.40 3.53 (1.96) 2.89 (1.27) 0.11 3.82 (3.0) 3.04 (1.84) 0.18 
Fasting insulin [mean (SD)] 12.42 (5.06) 13.76 (8.94) 0.74 11.42 (4.68) 10.95 (4.52) 0.37 16.78 (7.85) 14.67 (5.85) 0.17 20.28 (10.8) 14.59 (8.51) 0.05 
Fasting glucose [mean (SD)] 4.46 (0.47) 4.47 (0.39) 0.55 4.33 (0.40) 4.28 (0.44) 0.35 4.67 (0.54) 4.38 (0.48) 0.03 4.29 (0.66) 4.18 (0.47) 0.29 
GDM [n (%)] 0 (0%) 3 (12%) 0.07    3 (16%) 5 (23%) 0.57    

*Analyses were repeated by excluding all women with GDM and then by excluding all women with insulin-treated GDM. Results did not materially differ from those presented here. Note: It is recommended that an individual achieves at least between 7.5 and 12.5 MET-h/week to meet current exercise guidelines for weekly moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities (15).

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