Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to quartiles of energy-adjusted phylloquinone and menaquinones intake of 38,094 Dutch adults

CharacteristicsPhylloquinone
Menaquinones
Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)
n 9,523 9,524 9,524 9,523 9,486 9,557 9,557 9,494 
Phylloquinone (μg) 95.7 ± 24.6 155.8 ± 15.1 213.1 ± 19.1 332.9 ± 82.5 187.1 ± 97.3 200.6 ± 96.8 205.3 ± 99.5 204.5 ± 98.6 
Menaquinones (μg) 29.4 ± 14.5 30.3 ± 13.6 30.9 ± 13.3 31.5 ± 13.5 15.4 ± 3.7 24.5 ± 2.2 33.0 ± 2.8 49.1 ± 10.8 
Male sex 3,204 (33.6) 2,738 (28.7) 2,191 (23.0) 1,607 (16.9) 3,509 (37.0) 2,585 (27.0) 2,033 (21.3) 1,613 (17.0) 
Age (years) 46.3 ± 12.4 48.2 ± 11.8 49.8 ± 11.6 52.2 ± 10.9 44.9 ± 12.9 49.0 ± 11.9 50.5 ± 11.2 52.0 ± 10.2 
BMI (kg/m225.3 ± 3.9 25.4 ± 3.9 25.6 ± 3.9 26.1 ± 4.2 25.3 ± 3.9 25.7 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 4.1 
Waist circumference (cm) 84.7 ± 11.7 84.8 ± 11.4 85.0 ± 11.2 85.7 ± 11.3 84.9 ± 11.7 85.4 ± 11.4 85.2 ± 11.2 84.8 ± 11.4 
Current smoker 3,167 (33.3) 2,860 (30.1) 2,754 (29.0) 2,849 (30.0) 3,376 (35.7) 2,979 (31.3) 2,707 (28.4) 2,568 (27.1) 
Physically inactive* 1,079 (11.3) 808 (8.5) 785 (8.2) 829 (8.7) 1,169 (12.3) 871 (9.1) 750 (7.8) 711 (7.5) 
Higher education 2,257 (23.7) 2,030 (21.3) 1,955 (20.5) 1,588 (16.7) 1,676 (17.7) 1,770 (18.5) 2,024 (21.2) 2,360 (24.9) 
Family history of diabetes 1,570 (16.5) 1,674 (17.6) 1,759 (18.5) 1,860 (19.5) 1,482 (15.6) 1,783 (18.7) 1,851 (19.4) 1,747 (18.4) 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124.3 ± 18.5 125.1 ± 18.1 126.7 ± 19.0 128.1 ± 19.5 123.6 ± 18.0 126.1 ± 18.6 127.0 ± 19.1 127.3 ± 19.3 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.4 ± 10.8 77.6 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.6 78.2 ± 10.7 77.1 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.7 78.0 ± 10.7 78.0 ± 10.7 
Hypertension 3,225 (33.9) 3,307 (34.7) 3,605 (37.9) 3,908 (41.0) 3,096 (32.6) 3,592 (37.6) 3,664 (38.3) 3,693 (38.9) 
Hyperlipidemia 771 (8.1) 787 (8.3) 748 (7.9) 828 (8.7) 958 (10.1) 836 (8.7) 738 (7.7) 602 (6.3) 
Alcohol intake (g/day) 5.6 (16.7) 5.7 (15.3) 5.2 (14.3) 4.1 (13.7) 4.3 (15.7) 5.2 (15.4) 5.2 (14.1) 5.7 (14.9) 
Diet         
Energy intake (kcal/day) 2,060 ± 649 2,103 ± 624 2,071 ± 612 1,984 ± 590 2,087 ± 669 2,064 ± 618 2,043 ± 590 2,024 ± 601 
Saturated fat intake (g/day) 31.9 ± 5.9 32.5 ± 5.8 32.8 ± 5.7 33.1 ± 6.1 29.4 ± 5.4 31.7 ± 5.2 33.2 ± 5.1 35.9 ± 5.8 
PUFA intake (g/day) 14.5 ± 3.9 14.9 ± 3.7 15.1 ± 3.8 15.3 ± 4.1 15.5 ± 4.2 15.2 ± 3.8 14.9 ± 3.7 14.3 ± 3.7 
MUFA intake (g/day) 29.2 ± 5.2 29.5 ± 5.0 29.6 ± 5.1 29.5 ± 5.3 29.0 ± 5.6 29.4 ± 5.1 29.5 ± 4.9 30.0 ± 5.0 
Protein intake (g/day) 73.5 ± 11.3 75.0 ± 10.4 76.2 ± 10.5 78.2 ± 11.2 69.0 ± 10.3 74.1 ± 9.4 77.5 ± 9.5 82.3 ± 10.2 
Fiber intake (g/day) 21.1 ± 4.6 22.9 ± 4.4 23.9 ± 4.4 25.5 ± 4.7 23.0 ± 5.3 23.4 ± 4.8 23.6 ± 4.5 23.4 ± 4.6 
Vitamin C intake (mg/day) 94.2 ± 39.6 107.0 ± 42.9 113.6 ± 44.3 122.8 ± 49.2 101.5 ± 47.2 108.5 ± 44.3 113.0 ± 43.9 114.6 ± 44.8 
Vitamin E intake (mg/day) 11.5 ± 3.2 12.0 ± 3.1 12.4 ± 3.1 13.0 ± 3.4 12.6 ± 3.5 12.4 ± 3.3 12.2 ± 3.1 11.7 ± 3.0 
Calcium intake (mg/day) 1,003 ± 370 1,050 ± 347 1,079 ± 343 1,130 ± 349 804 ± 296 990 ± 285 1,127 ± 283 1,340 ± 320 
CharacteristicsPhylloquinone
Menaquinones
Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)
n 9,523 9,524 9,524 9,523 9,486 9,557 9,557 9,494 
Phylloquinone (μg) 95.7 ± 24.6 155.8 ± 15.1 213.1 ± 19.1 332.9 ± 82.5 187.1 ± 97.3 200.6 ± 96.8 205.3 ± 99.5 204.5 ± 98.6 
Menaquinones (μg) 29.4 ± 14.5 30.3 ± 13.6 30.9 ± 13.3 31.5 ± 13.5 15.4 ± 3.7 24.5 ± 2.2 33.0 ± 2.8 49.1 ± 10.8 
Male sex 3,204 (33.6) 2,738 (28.7) 2,191 (23.0) 1,607 (16.9) 3,509 (37.0) 2,585 (27.0) 2,033 (21.3) 1,613 (17.0) 
Age (years) 46.3 ± 12.4 48.2 ± 11.8 49.8 ± 11.6 52.2 ± 10.9 44.9 ± 12.9 49.0 ± 11.9 50.5 ± 11.2 52.0 ± 10.2 
BMI (kg/m225.3 ± 3.9 25.4 ± 3.9 25.6 ± 3.9 26.1 ± 4.2 25.3 ± 3.9 25.7 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 4.1 
Waist circumference (cm) 84.7 ± 11.7 84.8 ± 11.4 85.0 ± 11.2 85.7 ± 11.3 84.9 ± 11.7 85.4 ± 11.4 85.2 ± 11.2 84.8 ± 11.4 
Current smoker 3,167 (33.3) 2,860 (30.1) 2,754 (29.0) 2,849 (30.0) 3,376 (35.7) 2,979 (31.3) 2,707 (28.4) 2,568 (27.1) 
Physically inactive* 1,079 (11.3) 808 (8.5) 785 (8.2) 829 (8.7) 1,169 (12.3) 871 (9.1) 750 (7.8) 711 (7.5) 
Higher education 2,257 (23.7) 2,030 (21.3) 1,955 (20.5) 1,588 (16.7) 1,676 (17.7) 1,770 (18.5) 2,024 (21.2) 2,360 (24.9) 
Family history of diabetes 1,570 (16.5) 1,674 (17.6) 1,759 (18.5) 1,860 (19.5) 1,482 (15.6) 1,783 (18.7) 1,851 (19.4) 1,747 (18.4) 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 124.3 ± 18.5 125.1 ± 18.1 126.7 ± 19.0 128.1 ± 19.5 123.6 ± 18.0 126.1 ± 18.6 127.0 ± 19.1 127.3 ± 19.3 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.4 ± 10.8 77.6 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.6 78.2 ± 10.7 77.1 ± 10.4 77.9 ± 10.7 78.0 ± 10.7 78.0 ± 10.7 
Hypertension 3,225 (33.9) 3,307 (34.7) 3,605 (37.9) 3,908 (41.0) 3,096 (32.6) 3,592 (37.6) 3,664 (38.3) 3,693 (38.9) 
Hyperlipidemia 771 (8.1) 787 (8.3) 748 (7.9) 828 (8.7) 958 (10.1) 836 (8.7) 738 (7.7) 602 (6.3) 
Alcohol intake (g/day) 5.6 (16.7) 5.7 (15.3) 5.2 (14.3) 4.1 (13.7) 4.3 (15.7) 5.2 (15.4) 5.2 (14.1) 5.7 (14.9) 
Diet         
Energy intake (kcal/day) 2,060 ± 649 2,103 ± 624 2,071 ± 612 1,984 ± 590 2,087 ± 669 2,064 ± 618 2,043 ± 590 2,024 ± 601 
Saturated fat intake (g/day) 31.9 ± 5.9 32.5 ± 5.8 32.8 ± 5.7 33.1 ± 6.1 29.4 ± 5.4 31.7 ± 5.2 33.2 ± 5.1 35.9 ± 5.8 
PUFA intake (g/day) 14.5 ± 3.9 14.9 ± 3.7 15.1 ± 3.8 15.3 ± 4.1 15.5 ± 4.2 15.2 ± 3.8 14.9 ± 3.7 14.3 ± 3.7 
MUFA intake (g/day) 29.2 ± 5.2 29.5 ± 5.0 29.6 ± 5.1 29.5 ± 5.3 29.0 ± 5.6 29.4 ± 5.1 29.5 ± 4.9 30.0 ± 5.0 
Protein intake (g/day) 73.5 ± 11.3 75.0 ± 10.4 76.2 ± 10.5 78.2 ± 11.2 69.0 ± 10.3 74.1 ± 9.4 77.5 ± 9.5 82.3 ± 10.2 
Fiber intake (g/day) 21.1 ± 4.6 22.9 ± 4.4 23.9 ± 4.4 25.5 ± 4.7 23.0 ± 5.3 23.4 ± 4.8 23.6 ± 4.5 23.4 ± 4.6 
Vitamin C intake (mg/day) 94.2 ± 39.6 107.0 ± 42.9 113.6 ± 44.3 122.8 ± 49.2 101.5 ± 47.2 108.5 ± 44.3 113.0 ± 43.9 114.6 ± 44.8 
Vitamin E intake (mg/day) 11.5 ± 3.2 12.0 ± 3.1 12.4 ± 3.1 13.0 ± 3.4 12.6 ± 3.5 12.4 ± 3.3 12.2 ± 3.1 11.7 ± 3.0 
Calcium intake (mg/day) 1,003 ± 370 1,050 ± 347 1,079 ± 343 1,130 ± 349 804 ± 296 990 ± 285 1,127 ± 283 1,340 ± 320 

Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Ptrend < 0.001 except for waist circumference over menaquinones categories. MUFA, monounsaturated fat; PUFA, polyunsaturated fat.

*Inactive according to the Cambridge physical activity index.

†Median (interquartile range).

‡All nutrients are energy adjusted except energy intake.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal