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Table 1

Associations between depressive symptoms, the use of antidepressant medications, and HOMA-IR and CIR as indices of IR and secretion

HOMA-IR*PCIRP
Depression     
 Antidepressant medication (no vs. yes)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.82 (1.29–2.58) 0.001 1.21 (0.83–1.76) 0.320 
  Full model§ 1.66 (1.11–2.48) 0.014 1.36 (0.92–2.01) 0.121 
Depressive symptoms     
 Total score (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.17 (1.09–1.25) 0.001 0.99 (0.92–1.06) 0.681 
  Full model§ 1.12 (1.03–1.21) 0.007 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.679 
 MHI (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.11 (1.04–1.19) 0.003 0.99 (0.93–1.07) 0.848 
  Diagnosed diabetes excluded§ 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.038 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 0.810 
 VS (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.20 (1.12–1.29) 0.001 0.98 (0.91–1.05) 0.496 
  Full model§ 1.13 (1.04–1.22) 0.004 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.580 
HOMA-IR*PCIRP
Depression     
 Antidepressant medication (no vs. yes)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.82 (1.29–2.58) 0.001 1.21 (0.83–1.76) 0.320 
  Full model§ 1.66 (1.11–2.48) 0.014 1.36 (0.92–2.01) 0.121 
Depressive symptoms     
 Total score (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.17 (1.09–1.25) 0.001 0.99 (0.92–1.06) 0.681 
  Full model§ 1.12 (1.03–1.21) 0.007 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.679 
 MHI (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.11 (1.04–1.19) 0.003 0.99 (0.93–1.07) 0.848 
  Diagnosed diabetes excluded§ 1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.038 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 0.810 
 VS (SD units)     
  Sex- and age-adjusted model 1.20 (1.12–1.29) 0.001 0.98 (0.91–1.05) 0.496 
  Full model§ 1.13 (1.04–1.22) 0.004 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.580 

Data are OR (95% CI).

*HOMA-IR was dichotomized contrasting the highest quartile (referent) with the other three quartiles, n = 1,105 vs. 3,314.

†CIR was dichotomized contrasting the lowest quartile (referent) with the other three quartiles, n = 1,104 vs. 3,315.

‡Number of individuals using antidepressant medications is 147.

§Full model refers to adjustments for age, sex, regular exercise (yes: >30 min intense physical activity three or more times per week resulting in breathlessness/sweating vs. no: less or no activity), alcohol consumption (grams per week), current smoking status (yes vs. no or former smoker), BMI (kg/m2), occupational status (manual workers, junior clericals, senior clericals, students, and retirees), and family history of diabetes in at least one first-degree relative.

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