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Table 1

General baseline characteristics of the study population by diabetes status

No diabetesIncident diabetesPrevalent diabetes
n 2,460 78 61 
Age (years) 55.0 ± 6.8 57.4 ± 6.6 60.6 ± 6.5 
Sex (% women) 51.0 46.2 49.2 
Level of education (% highly educated) 26.8 12.8 13.1 
Cognitive function domain scores (z scores)    
    Memory function 0.01 ± 0.94 0.00 ± 0.89 −0.53 ± 0.87 
    Speed of cognitive processes 0.02 ± 0.83 −0.18 ± 0.88 −0.51 ± 0.95 
    Cognitive flexibility 0.02 ± 0.99 −0.33 ± 1.00 −0.30 ± 1.41 
    Global cognitive function 0.02 ± 0.72 −0.19 ± 0.66 −0.45 ± 0.75 
Random glucose level (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1.6 11.4 ± 3.9 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130 ± 17 143 ± 19 142 ± 18 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82 ± 10 88 ± 11 84 ± 12 
Use of blood pressure lowering medication (%) 10.0 21.8 41.0 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.84 ± 1.00 6.09 ± 1.19 5.70 ± 1.02 
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), men 1.23 ± 0.32 1.04 ± 0.26 1.17 ± 0.36 
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), women 1.55 ± 0.38 1.20 ± 0.33 1.23 ± 0.23 
History of myocardial infarction (%) 1.6 3.9 6.6 
BMI (kg/m226.1 ± 3.6 30.0 ± 4.9 29.6 ± 4.9 
    Waist circumference (cm), men 98.3 ± 8.9 105.7 ± 7.9 106.1 ± 14.1 
    Waist circumference (cm), women 88.8 ± 10.5 102.1 ± 12.5 103.3 ± 10.8 
Physical activity (% inactive)* 24.6 24.4 37.7 
Alcohol consumption (% >4 glasses/day) 4.8 9.0 1.6 
Smoking (%) 22.2 23.4 14.8 
Mental health* 77 ± 15 78 ± 13 77 ± 18 
Vitality* 68 ± 17 66 ± 17 65 ± 18 
No diabetesIncident diabetesPrevalent diabetes
n 2,460 78 61 
Age (years) 55.0 ± 6.8 57.4 ± 6.6 60.6 ± 6.5 
Sex (% women) 51.0 46.2 49.2 
Level of education (% highly educated) 26.8 12.8 13.1 
Cognitive function domain scores (z scores)    
    Memory function 0.01 ± 0.94 0.00 ± 0.89 −0.53 ± 0.87 
    Speed of cognitive processes 0.02 ± 0.83 −0.18 ± 0.88 −0.51 ± 0.95 
    Cognitive flexibility 0.02 ± 0.99 −0.33 ± 1.00 −0.30 ± 1.41 
    Global cognitive function 0.02 ± 0.72 −0.19 ± 0.66 −0.45 ± 0.75 
Random glucose level (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1.6 11.4 ± 3.9 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130 ± 17 143 ± 19 142 ± 18 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82 ± 10 88 ± 11 84 ± 12 
Use of blood pressure lowering medication (%) 10.0 21.8 41.0 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.84 ± 1.00 6.09 ± 1.19 5.70 ± 1.02 
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), men 1.23 ± 0.32 1.04 ± 0.26 1.17 ± 0.36 
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l), women 1.55 ± 0.38 1.20 ± 0.33 1.23 ± 0.23 
History of myocardial infarction (%) 1.6 3.9 6.6 
BMI (kg/m226.1 ± 3.6 30.0 ± 4.9 29.6 ± 4.9 
    Waist circumference (cm), men 98.3 ± 8.9 105.7 ± 7.9 106.1 ± 14.1 
    Waist circumference (cm), women 88.8 ± 10.5 102.1 ± 12.5 103.3 ± 10.8 
Physical activity (% inactive)* 24.6 24.4 37.7 
Alcohol consumption (% >4 glasses/day) 4.8 9.0 1.6 
Smoking (%) 22.2 23.4 14.8 
Mental health* 77 ± 15 78 ± 13 77 ± 18 
Vitality* 68 ± 17 66 ± 17 65 ± 18 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Diabetes is defined as self-reported diabetes (verified by the general practitioner) or having a random plasma glucose level ≥11.1 mmol/l.

*Physical inactivity is defined as being classified in the lowest two of four categories (inactive and moderately inactive) according the Wareham classification for physical activity (16). Mental health and vitality scores are based on the SF-36 and represent depressive symptoms. Scores range from 0 to 100 in which higher scores represent better (mental) health (18).

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