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Table 1

Characteristics of the case subjects and control subjects in this study

Case subjectsControl subjects
n 27 53 
Age at onset of islet autoimmunity (months)* 12.1 (5–37) 12.3 (5–37) 
Female sex 17 (63) 23 (43) 
No. of other children in the family (siblings, half-siblings, step siblings)   
    None 5 (18.5) 16 (30.2) 
    ≥1 22 (81.5) 37 (69.8) 
First-degree relative with diabetes   
    None 17 (63) 50 (94.3) 
    Yes, of that 10 (37) 3 (5.7) 
        Sibling only 
        Father only 
        Mother only 
        Multiple family members 
Progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes   
    Yes 10 None 
Stool samples   
    Total 627 1,417 
    Before development of islet autoimmunity* 339 692 
Case subjectsControl subjects
n 27 53 
Age at onset of islet autoimmunity (months)* 12.1 (5–37) 12.3 (5–37) 
Female sex 17 (63) 23 (43) 
No. of other children in the family (siblings, half-siblings, step siblings)   
    None 5 (18.5) 16 (30.2) 
    ≥1 22 (81.5) 37 (69.8) 
First-degree relative with diabetes   
    None 17 (63) 50 (94.3) 
    Yes, of that 10 (37) 3 (5.7) 
        Sibling only 
        Father only 
        Mother only 
        Multiple family members 
Progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes   
    Yes 10 None 
Stool samples   
    Total 627 1,417 
    Before development of islet autoimmunity* 339 692 

Data are median (range), n (%), and n.

*For matched control subjects: before the age at which the corresponding case subject seroconverted for islet autoantibodies.

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