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Table 3

Semiquantitative testing of the stool samples: frequency of enterovirus infections with high and low viral load in the children who subsequently developed repeated positivity of multiple autoantibodies vs. matched control subjects who did not develop autoimmunity

Case subjectsControl subjects
n 27 53 
Enterovirus RNA-negative 296 598 
Enterovirus RNA-positive, low-moderate quantity* 18 (5.3) 46 (6.6) 
Enterovirus RNA-positive, high quantity* 25 (7.4) 48 (6.9) 
Total 339 692 
Enterovirus RNA-negative 296 598 
New infection episode, low-moderate quantity* 11 (3.4) 31 (4.7) 
New infection episode, high quantity* 19 (5.9) 34 (5.1) 
Total 326 663 
Case subjectsControl subjects
n 27 53 
Enterovirus RNA-negative 296 598 
Enterovirus RNA-positive, low-moderate quantity* 18 (5.3) 46 (6.6) 
Enterovirus RNA-positive, high quantity* 25 (7.4) 48 (6.9) 
Total 339 692 
Enterovirus RNA-negative 296 598 
New infection episode, low-moderate quantity* 11 (3.4) 31 (4.7) 
New infection episode, high quantity* 19 (5.9) 34 (5.1) 
Total 326 663 

Data are n or n (%).

*Negative, <100 copies/ml enterovirus RNA; low-moderate quantity, 100–9,999 copies/ml enterovirus RNA; high quantity, 310,000 copies/ml enterovirus RNA;

†Excluding consecutively positive samples that may have been part of the same infectious episode as in the previous positive sample.

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