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Table 1

Demographic and medical characteristics of patient cohorts

CharacteristicTotal populationType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesP
N 15,692 1,338/15,544 (8.6%) 14,206/15,544 (91.4%) — 
Male 8,448/15,684 (53.9%) 750/1,338 (56.1%) 7,631/14,203 (53.3%) 0.10 
Age (years) 61.4 ± 14.0 37.6 ± 12.9 63.6 ± 11.8 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 5 (2–10) 17 (10–26) 4 (2–10) <0.0001 
Ethnicity     
 White European 13,409/15,692 (85.5%) 1,283/1,338 (96.0%) 12,015/14,206 (84.6%)  
 South Asian 1,866/15,692 (11.9%) 42/1,338 (3.1%) 1,791/14,206 (12.6%)  
 African Caribbean 371/15,692 (2.4%) 11/1,338 (0.8%) 357/14,206 (2.5%)  
 Other 46/15,692 (0.2%) 2/1,338 (0.1%) 43/14,206 (0.3%) <0.0001 
Diabetes treatment     
 Diet only 4,643/15,622 (29.7%) — 4,601/14,163 (32.5%)  
 OHA + diet 7,696/15,622 (49.3%) — 7,637/14,163 (53.9%)  
 Insulin (±OHA) 3,283/15,622 (21.0%) 1,337/1,337 (100.0%) 1,925/14,163 (13.6%) <0.0001 
Overt nephropathy 440/15,274 (2.9%) 58/1,308 (4.4%) 379/13,841 (2.7%) <0.001 
Impaired vision 1,700/15,455 (11.0%) 108/1,319 (8.2%) 1,574/14,006 (11.2%) <0.001 
Smoking history     
 Never smoked 6,568/15,632 (42.0%) 626/1,335 (46.8%) 5,859/14,156 (41.4%)  
 Current smoker 3,581/15,632 (22.9%) 445/1,335 (33.3%) 3,111/14,156 (22.0%)  
 Ex-smoker 5,483/15,632 (35.1%) 264/1,335 (19.7%) 5,186/14,156 (36.6%) <0.0001 
Alcohol (≥7 units/week) 6,998/15,474 (45.2%) 877/1,323 (66.3%) 6,074/14,020 (43.3%) <0.0001 
Clinical neuropathy 3,333/15,659 (21.3%) 217/1,337 (16.2%) 3,077/14,183 (21.7%) <0.0001 
Foot deformities 4,699/15,600 (30.1%) 204/1,335 (15.3%) 4,444/14,126 (31.5%) <0.0001 
Peripheral arterial disease 3,139/15,664 (20.0%) 139/1,337 (10.4%) 2,957/14,186 (20.8%) <0.0001 
Foot ulcer history 774/15,484 (5.0%) 80/1,331 (6.0%) 684/14,015 (4.9%) 0.070 
Lower-limb amputation history 191/15,422 (1.2%) 24/1,327 (1.8%) 164/13,955 (1.2%) 0.045 
CharacteristicTotal populationType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesP
N 15,692 1,338/15,544 (8.6%) 14,206/15,544 (91.4%) — 
Male 8,448/15,684 (53.9%) 750/1,338 (56.1%) 7,631/14,203 (53.3%) 0.10 
Age (years) 61.4 ± 14.0 37.6 ± 12.9 63.6 ± 11.8 <0.0001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 5 (2–10) 17 (10–26) 4 (2–10) <0.0001 
Ethnicity     
 White European 13,409/15,692 (85.5%) 1,283/1,338 (96.0%) 12,015/14,206 (84.6%)  
 South Asian 1,866/15,692 (11.9%) 42/1,338 (3.1%) 1,791/14,206 (12.6%)  
 African Caribbean 371/15,692 (2.4%) 11/1,338 (0.8%) 357/14,206 (2.5%)  
 Other 46/15,692 (0.2%) 2/1,338 (0.1%) 43/14,206 (0.3%) <0.0001 
Diabetes treatment     
 Diet only 4,643/15,622 (29.7%) — 4,601/14,163 (32.5%)  
 OHA + diet 7,696/15,622 (49.3%) — 7,637/14,163 (53.9%)  
 Insulin (±OHA) 3,283/15,622 (21.0%) 1,337/1,337 (100.0%) 1,925/14,163 (13.6%) <0.0001 
Overt nephropathy 440/15,274 (2.9%) 58/1,308 (4.4%) 379/13,841 (2.7%) <0.001 
Impaired vision 1,700/15,455 (11.0%) 108/1,319 (8.2%) 1,574/14,006 (11.2%) <0.001 
Smoking history     
 Never smoked 6,568/15,632 (42.0%) 626/1,335 (46.8%) 5,859/14,156 (41.4%)  
 Current smoker 3,581/15,632 (22.9%) 445/1,335 (33.3%) 3,111/14,156 (22.0%)  
 Ex-smoker 5,483/15,632 (35.1%) 264/1,335 (19.7%) 5,186/14,156 (36.6%) <0.0001 
Alcohol (≥7 units/week) 6,998/15,474 (45.2%) 877/1,323 (66.3%) 6,074/14,020 (43.3%) <0.0001 
Clinical neuropathy 3,333/15,659 (21.3%) 217/1,337 (16.2%) 3,077/14,183 (21.7%) <0.0001 
Foot deformities 4,699/15,600 (30.1%) 204/1,335 (15.3%) 4,444/14,126 (31.5%) <0.0001 
Peripheral arterial disease 3,139/15,664 (20.0%) 139/1,337 (10.4%) 2,957/14,186 (20.8%) <0.0001 
Foot ulcer history 774/15,484 (5.0%) 80/1,331 (6.0%) 684/14,015 (4.9%) 0.070 
Lower-limb amputation history 191/15,422 (1.2%) 24/1,327 (1.8%) 164/13,955 (1.2%) 0.045 

Data are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (25th–75th percentiles); P values for type 1 vs. type 2.

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