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Table 1

Literature review of DKA at diagnosis in children under age 5 years

Study country (reference)Definition of DKATime of diabetes onsetDKA frequency % (n)
<2 years of age<3 years of age<5 years of age
SEARCH, U.S. (7) 2002–2004 NA NA 37.3 (458) 
Austria (3) 1989–2008 60 (185) NA 43.7 (775) 
Germany (5) 1987–1997 NA NA 36.0 (470) 
Germany and Austria (8) 1995–2007 NA NA 26.5 (NA) 
Canada (2) 1994–2000 NA 39.7% (390) NA 
Finland (6) 1992–2001 44.71, 54.22 (48) NA 23.71, 29.32 (137) 
U.S. (9) 1995–1998 NA NA 54.5 (44) 
Study country (reference)Definition of DKATime of diabetes onsetDKA frequency % (n)
<2 years of age<3 years of age<5 years of age
SEARCH, U.S. (7) 2002–2004 NA NA 37.3 (458) 
Austria (3) 1989–2008 60 (185) NA 43.7 (775) 
Germany (5) 1987–1997 NA NA 36.0 (470) 
Germany and Austria (8) 1995–2007 NA NA 26.5 (NA) 
Canada (2) 1994–2000 NA 39.7% (390) NA 
Finland (6) 1992–2001 44.71, 54.22 (48) NA 23.71, 29.32 (137) 
U.S. (9) 1995–1998 NA NA 54.5 (44) 

NA, data not available. DKA defined as follows: 1 = pH <7.3; 2 = pH <7.3 and/or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L; 3 = pH <7.3 or bicarbonate <15 mmol/L and ketonuria; 4 = arterial or capillary pH <7.3/venous pH <7.25 or ICD 9 code 250.1 at discharge or DKA diagnosis mentioned in the medical charts; 5 = ICD 9 codes 250.1/250.2/250.3 from medical charts. Superscript numbers refer to DKA frequency calculated by DKA definitions 1 and 2.

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