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Table 1

Rating scale for the quality of evidence

High: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect. The body of evidence comes from high-level individual studies that are sufficiently powered and provide precise, consistent, and directly applicable results in a relevant population. 
Moderate: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate and the recommendation. The body of evidence comes from high-/moderate-level individual studies that are sufficient to determine effects, but the strength of the evidence is limited by the number, quality, or consistency of the included studies; generalizability of results to routine practice; or indirect nature of the evidence. 
Low: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate and the recommendation. The body of evidence is of low level and comes from studies with serious design flaws, or evidence is indirect. 
Very low: Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Recommendation may change when higher-quality evidence becomes available. Evidence is insufficient to assess the effects on health outcomes because of limited number or power of studies, important flaws in their design or conduct, gaps in the chain of evidence, or lack of information. 
High: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect. The body of evidence comes from high-level individual studies that are sufficiently powered and provide precise, consistent, and directly applicable results in a relevant population. 
Moderate: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate and the recommendation. The body of evidence comes from high-/moderate-level individual studies that are sufficient to determine effects, but the strength of the evidence is limited by the number, quality, or consistency of the included studies; generalizability of results to routine practice; or indirect nature of the evidence. 
Low: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate and the recommendation. The body of evidence is of low level and comes from studies with serious design flaws, or evidence is indirect. 
Very low: Any estimate of effect is very uncertain. Recommendation may change when higher-quality evidence becomes available. Evidence is insufficient to assess the effects on health outcomes because of limited number or power of studies, important flaws in their design or conduct, gaps in the chain of evidence, or lack of information. 
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