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Table 1

Comparison of children in different age-groups at the time of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (N = 1,656)

0–4 years5–9 years10–14 yearsP<2 years≥2 yearsP
n (%) 436 (26.3) 629 (38.0) 591 (35.7)  103 (6.2) 1,553 (93.8)  
Boys (%) 53.7 54.2 61.1 0.020 60.2 56.3 0.438 
Symptoms of diabetes >2 weeks (%) 29.8 35.8 40.9 0.006 28.2 36.5 0.140 
Blood pH 7.39 (7.34–7.40) 7.38 (7.34–7.41) 7.36 (7.27–7.40) <0.001 7.36 (7.27–7.39) 7.38 (7.33–7.40) 0.001 
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)* 25.8 (24.8–26.9) 24.6 (23.8–25.4) 26.2 (25.3–27.2) 0.173 29.4 (26.8–32.1) 25.3 (24.8–25.9) <0.001 
DKA (%), pH <7.30* 16.5 (14.7–18.3) 14.6 (11.8–17.4) 26.4 (22.8–30.0) <0.001 30.1 (21.2–38.9) 18.6 (16.6–20.6) 0.004 
Severe DKA (%), pH <7.10* 3.7 (1.9–5.5) 3.1 (1.7–4.5) 5.9 (4.0–7.8) 0.048 7.8 (2.6–12.9) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 0.070 
BMI (kg/m2       
    With DKA 14.4 (13.4–15.5) 14.6 (13.2–16.2)§ 15.8 (14.2–17.8)  15.1 (13.7–15.6) 15.2 (13.7–17.0)#  
    Without DKA 14.8 (13.9–15.9) 15.1 (14.0–16.6) 16.9 (15.2–19.2)  15.0 (14.1–16.0) 15.5 (14.3–17.3)  
0–4 years5–9 years10–14 yearsP<2 years≥2 yearsP
n (%) 436 (26.3) 629 (38.0) 591 (35.7)  103 (6.2) 1,553 (93.8)  
Boys (%) 53.7 54.2 61.1 0.020 60.2 56.3 0.438 
Symptoms of diabetes >2 weeks (%) 29.8 35.8 40.9 0.006 28.2 36.5 0.140 
Blood pH 7.39 (7.34–7.40) 7.38 (7.34–7.41) 7.36 (7.27–7.40) <0.001 7.36 (7.27–7.39) 7.38 (7.33–7.40) 0.001 
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)* 25.8 (24.8–26.9) 24.6 (23.8–25.4) 26.2 (25.3–27.2) 0.173 29.4 (26.8–32.1) 25.3 (24.8–25.9) <0.001 
DKA (%), pH <7.30* 16.5 (14.7–18.3) 14.6 (11.8–17.4) 26.4 (22.8–30.0) <0.001 30.1 (21.2–38.9) 18.6 (16.6–20.6) 0.004 
Severe DKA (%), pH <7.10* 3.7 (1.9–5.5) 3.1 (1.7–4.5) 5.9 (4.0–7.8) 0.048 7.8 (2.6–12.9) 4.0 (3.0–5.0) 0.070 
BMI (kg/m2       
    With DKA 14.4 (13.4–15.5) 14.6 (13.2–16.2)§ 15.8 (14.2–17.8)  15.1 (13.7–15.6) 15.2 (13.7–17.0)#  
    Without DKA 14.8 (13.9–15.9) 15.1 (14.0–16.6) 16.9 (15.2–19.2)  15.0 (14.1–16.0) 15.5 (14.3–17.3)  

Data are means (95% CI)

*, medians (interquartile range)

†, or proportions (95% CI).

P = 0.026.

§P = 0.065.

P < 0.001.

P = 0.295.

#P = 0.019.

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