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Table 3

Predicted marginal CVD risk factor prevalence among U.S. NHWs, NHBs, and MAs aged 6–24 years by PIR tertile and age-group

6–11 Years
12–17 Years
18–24 Years
P value
T1T2T3T1T2T3T1T2T3
Males           
 Obesity 19.9 (16.8–23.0) 18.6 (14.5–22.7) 13.2 (9.5–16.9) 20.6 (17.9–23.3) 18.9 (15.6–22.2) 15.6 (12.5–18.7) 17.9 (14.4–21.4) 20.4 (15.9–24.9) 22.0 (16.5–27.5) 0.08 
 Central obesity 30.0 (25.7–34.3) 28.9 (24.6–33.2) 21.6§ (17.5–25.7) 31.9 (28.4–35.4) 30.4 (26.1–34.7) 26.6 (22.9–30.3) 43.5 (39.0–48.0) 45.5 (40.6–50.4) 47.9 (42.4–53.4) 0.03 
 Sedentary behavior    14.8 (11.5–18.1) 9.8 (7.3–12.3) 9.3 (6.2–12.4) 24.6 (19.7–29.5) 20.9 (16.2–25.6) 18.3 (12.8–23.8) 0.69 
 Tobacco exposure#    19.0 (14.9–23.1) 9.7 (7.5–11.9) 6.5§ (4.7–8.3) 48.2 (41.5–54.9) 46.4 (41.3–51.5) 41.4 (35.5–47.3) 0.002 
 High sBP** 9.1 (5.4–12.0) 6.4 (4.0–9.4) 5.1 (2.2–8.0) 6.2 (4.2–8.2) 7.2 (5.2–9.2) 4.8 (3.0–6.6) 13.4 (10.1–16.7) 11.3 (7.8–14.8) 14.0 (9.7–18.3) 0.23 
 High non–HDL-C 11.8 (9.1–14.5) 12.0 (9.3–14.7) 12.2 (9.3–15.1) 12.0 (8.9–15.1) 11.8 (8.7–14.9) 13.6 (10.5–16.7) 26.2 (21.5–30.9) 23.0 (17.5–28.5) 26.7 (21.6–31.8) 0.91 
 Elevated HbA1c    3.9 (2.7–5.1) 3.3 (2.1–4.5) 2.9 (1.5–4.3) 3.1 (1.5–4.7) 2.2 (1.0–3.4) 2.4 (0.6–4.2) 0.89 
 Elevated hs-CRP 2.6 (1.0–4.2) 3.7 (1.3–6.1) 2.5 (0.5–4.5) 3.2 (1.4–5.0) 2.4 (1.0–3.8) 2.3 (1.1–3.5) 5.0 (2.5–7.5) 4.6 (2.2–7.0) 3.3 (1.3–5.3) 0.91 
Females           
 Obesity 18.7 (16.0–21.4) 15.1 (12.0–18.2) 14.1 (10.2–18.0) 17.9 (14.0–21.8) 18.4 (15.3–21.5) 13.1 (10.4–15.8) 25.6 (20.9–30.3) 26.4 (21.1–31.7) 19.7 (12.8–26.6) 0.53 
 Central obesity 32.1 (28.0–36.2) 31.1 (26.0–36.2) 28.0 (22.5–33.5) 41.5 (36.6–46.4) 42.9 (38.2–47.6) 29.2§ (25.7–32.7) 56.1 (49.2–63.0) 56.9 (50.6–63.2) 47.8 (41.1–54.5) 0.22 
 Sedentary behavior    20.4 (16.9–23.9) 16.3 (13.0–19.6) 9.4§ (6.5–12.3) 27.0 (21.9–32.1) 21.4 (17.5–25.3) 19.1 (13.0–25.2) 0.31 
 Tobacco exposure#    14.1 (10.4–17.8) 10.4 (7.1–13.7) 5.9§ (3.9–7.9) 31.1 (24.8–37.4) 28.1 (22.4–33.8) 22.5 (17.2–27.8) 0.26 
 High sBP** 6.6 (5.4–12.0) 6.3 (4.0–9.4) 5.0 (2.2–8.0) 3.6 (2.2–5.0) 4.9 (2.5–7.3) 4.7 (3.1–6.3) 2.0 (0.6–3.4) 2.5 (0.9–4.1) 1.9 (0.1–3.7) 0.65 
 High non–HDL-C 16.9 (12.8–21.0) 12.2 (9.1–15.3) 13.9 (8.4–19.4) 12.6 (9.5–15.7) 11.5 (8.8–14.2) 8.7 (5.8–11.6) 23.4 (18.7–28.1) 24.7 (18.6–30.8) 15.8 (11.5–20.1) 0.31 
 Elevated HbA1c    1.9 (0.9–2.9) 2.2 (1.2–3.2) 2.3 (0.7–3.9) 2.6 (1.4–3.8) 1.9 (0.3–3.5) 2.7 (0.5–4.9) 0.77 
 Elevated hs-CRP 3.5 (1.9–5.1) 3.3 (1.1–5.5) 0.6§ (−0.2 to 1.4) 4.2 (2.6–5.8) 4.0 (1.5–6.5) 1.7 (0.5–2.9) 9.0 (6.1–11.9) 7.8 (5.1–10.5) 8.3 (4.0–12.6) 0.13 
6–11 Years
12–17 Years
18–24 Years
P value
T1T2T3T1T2T3T1T2T3
Males           
 Obesity 19.9 (16.8–23.0) 18.6 (14.5–22.7) 13.2 (9.5–16.9) 20.6 (17.9–23.3) 18.9 (15.6–22.2) 15.6 (12.5–18.7) 17.9 (14.4–21.4) 20.4 (15.9–24.9) 22.0 (16.5–27.5) 0.08 
 Central obesity 30.0 (25.7–34.3) 28.9 (24.6–33.2) 21.6§ (17.5–25.7) 31.9 (28.4–35.4) 30.4 (26.1–34.7) 26.6 (22.9–30.3) 43.5 (39.0–48.0) 45.5 (40.6–50.4) 47.9 (42.4–53.4) 0.03 
 Sedentary behavior    14.8 (11.5–18.1) 9.8 (7.3–12.3) 9.3 (6.2–12.4) 24.6 (19.7–29.5) 20.9 (16.2–25.6) 18.3 (12.8–23.8) 0.69 
 Tobacco exposure#    19.0 (14.9–23.1) 9.7 (7.5–11.9) 6.5§ (4.7–8.3) 48.2 (41.5–54.9) 46.4 (41.3–51.5) 41.4 (35.5–47.3) 0.002 
 High sBP** 9.1 (5.4–12.0) 6.4 (4.0–9.4) 5.1 (2.2–8.0) 6.2 (4.2–8.2) 7.2 (5.2–9.2) 4.8 (3.0–6.6) 13.4 (10.1–16.7) 11.3 (7.8–14.8) 14.0 (9.7–18.3) 0.23 
 High non–HDL-C 11.8 (9.1–14.5) 12.0 (9.3–14.7) 12.2 (9.3–15.1) 12.0 (8.9–15.1) 11.8 (8.7–14.9) 13.6 (10.5–16.7) 26.2 (21.5–30.9) 23.0 (17.5–28.5) 26.7 (21.6–31.8) 0.91 
 Elevated HbA1c    3.9 (2.7–5.1) 3.3 (2.1–4.5) 2.9 (1.5–4.3) 3.1 (1.5–4.7) 2.2 (1.0–3.4) 2.4 (0.6–4.2) 0.89 
 Elevated hs-CRP 2.6 (1.0–4.2) 3.7 (1.3–6.1) 2.5 (0.5–4.5) 3.2 (1.4–5.0) 2.4 (1.0–3.8) 2.3 (1.1–3.5) 5.0 (2.5–7.5) 4.6 (2.2–7.0) 3.3 (1.3–5.3) 0.91 
Females           
 Obesity 18.7 (16.0–21.4) 15.1 (12.0–18.2) 14.1 (10.2–18.0) 17.9 (14.0–21.8) 18.4 (15.3–21.5) 13.1 (10.4–15.8) 25.6 (20.9–30.3) 26.4 (21.1–31.7) 19.7 (12.8–26.6) 0.53 
 Central obesity 32.1 (28.0–36.2) 31.1 (26.0–36.2) 28.0 (22.5–33.5) 41.5 (36.6–46.4) 42.9 (38.2–47.6) 29.2§ (25.7–32.7) 56.1 (49.2–63.0) 56.9 (50.6–63.2) 47.8 (41.1–54.5) 0.22 
 Sedentary behavior    20.4 (16.9–23.9) 16.3 (13.0–19.6) 9.4§ (6.5–12.3) 27.0 (21.9–32.1) 21.4 (17.5–25.3) 19.1 (13.0–25.2) 0.31 
 Tobacco exposure#    14.1 (10.4–17.8) 10.4 (7.1–13.7) 5.9§ (3.9–7.9) 31.1 (24.8–37.4) 28.1 (22.4–33.8) 22.5 (17.2–27.8) 0.26 
 High sBP** 6.6 (5.4–12.0) 6.3 (4.0–9.4) 5.0 (2.2–8.0) 3.6 (2.2–5.0) 4.9 (2.5–7.3) 4.7 (3.1–6.3) 2.0 (0.6–3.4) 2.5 (0.9–4.1) 1.9 (0.1–3.7) 0.65 
 High non–HDL-C 16.9 (12.8–21.0) 12.2 (9.1–15.3) 13.9 (8.4–19.4) 12.6 (9.5–15.7) 11.5 (8.8–14.2) 8.7 (5.8–11.6) 23.4 (18.7–28.1) 24.7 (18.6–30.8) 15.8 (11.5–20.1) 0.31 
 Elevated HbA1c    1.9 (0.9–2.9) 2.2 (1.2–3.2) 2.3 (0.7–3.9) 2.6 (1.4–3.8) 1.9 (0.3–3.5) 2.7 (0.5–4.9) 0.77 
 Elevated hs-CRP 3.5 (1.9–5.1) 3.3 (1.1–5.5) 0.6§ (−0.2 to 1.4) 4.2 (2.6–5.8) 4.0 (1.5–6.5) 1.7 (0.5–2.9) 9.0 (6.1–11.9) 7.8 (5.1–10.5) 8.3 (4.0–12.6) 0.13 

Logistic regression models of CVD risk factors controlling for PIR, race/ethnicity, age, and PIR × age interaction. Values are calculated as predicted percentages (95% CI). T, tertile.

P value for PIR × age interaction calculated from F statistic based on design-corrected Wald χ2 test.

P < 0.05 for difference between T1 and T3.

§P < 0.01 for difference between T1 and T3.

‖Assessed for individuals aged ≥12 years.

¶Because of changes in physical activity assessment in 2007, analyses were restricted to data from NHANES 1999–2006.

#Cases of cotinine >13 ng/mL among 6- to 11-year-olds too low to permit analyses.

**Measured in individuals aged ≥8 years.

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