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Table 2

Pregnancy outcomes stratified according to HbA1c measurement at ≤20 weeks’ (140 days’) gestation, excluding women treated for GDM

HbA1c 5.9–6.4%
(41–46 mmol/mol)
n = 200
n (%)HbA1c <5.9%
(<41 mmol/mol)
n = 7,987
n (%)RR (95% CI)
Delivery gestation    
 <37 weeks 16 (8.0) 392 (4.9) 1.66 (1.01–2.74)* 
 <32 weeks 3 (1.5) 71 (0.9) 1.67 (0.55–5.10) 
Induction of labor 35 (17.5) 1,016 (12.7) 1.44 (1.01–2.06)* 
Caesarean delivery    
 Total 65 (32.5) 2,428 (30.4) 1.10 (0.82–1.47) 
 Emergency 33 (16.5) 1,529 (19.1) 0.84 (0.58–1.21) 
Major congenital anomalies  n = 7,992  
 7 (3.5) 103 (1.3) 2.67 (1.28–5.53)* 
Preeclampsia 11 (5.5) 181 (2.3) 2.42 (1.34–4.38)* 
Perinatal death 4 (2.0) 38 (0.5) 3.96 (1.54–10.16)* 
Shoulder dystocia 5 (2.5) 79 (1.0) 2.47 (1.05–5.85)* 
Birth weight n = 199   
 Mean (SD) 3,480.2 (597.0) 3,483.8 (571.0) P = 0.93 
 >4,000 g 34 (17.1) 1,240 (15.5) 1.12 (0.78–1.61) 
 Population birth weight centiles n = 199   
  Small for gestational age 22 (11.1) 1,202 (15.1) 0.71 (0.46–1.10) 
  Large for gestational age 26 (13.1) 655 (8.2) 1.66 (1.11–2.48)* 
 Customized birth weight centiles n = 199   
  Small for gestational age 23 (11.6) 1,173 (14.7) 0.76 (0.50–1.17) 
  Large for gestational age 21 (10.1) 641 (8.0) 1.34 (0.86–2.09) 
HbA1c 5.9–6.4%
(41–46 mmol/mol)
n = 200
n (%)HbA1c <5.9%
(<41 mmol/mol)
n = 7,987
n (%)RR (95% CI)
Delivery gestation    
 <37 weeks 16 (8.0) 392 (4.9) 1.66 (1.01–2.74)* 
 <32 weeks 3 (1.5) 71 (0.9) 1.67 (0.55–5.10) 
Induction of labor 35 (17.5) 1,016 (12.7) 1.44 (1.01–2.06)* 
Caesarean delivery    
 Total 65 (32.5) 2,428 (30.4) 1.10 (0.82–1.47) 
 Emergency 33 (16.5) 1,529 (19.1) 0.84 (0.58–1.21) 
Major congenital anomalies  n = 7,992  
 7 (3.5) 103 (1.3) 2.67 (1.28–5.53)* 
Preeclampsia 11 (5.5) 181 (2.3) 2.42 (1.34–4.38)* 
Perinatal death 4 (2.0) 38 (0.5) 3.96 (1.54–10.16)* 
Shoulder dystocia 5 (2.5) 79 (1.0) 2.47 (1.05–5.85)* 
Birth weight n = 199   
 Mean (SD) 3,480.2 (597.0) 3,483.8 (571.0) P = 0.93 
 >4,000 g 34 (17.1) 1,240 (15.5) 1.12 (0.78–1.61) 
 Population birth weight centiles n = 199   
  Small for gestational age 22 (11.1) 1,202 (15.1) 0.71 (0.46–1.10) 
  Large for gestational age 26 (13.1) 655 (8.2) 1.66 (1.11–2.48)* 
 Customized birth weight centiles n = 199   
  Small for gestational age 23 (11.6) 1,173 (14.7) 0.76 (0.50–1.17) 
  Large for gestational age 21 (10.1) 641 (8.0) 1.34 (0.86–2.09) 

Small for gestational age <10th centile; large for gestational age >90th centile.

*Significant difference.

†Adjusted for gestational age at delivery and sex of baby.

‡Adjusted for ethnicity, maternal height and weight, parity, gestational age at delivery, and sex of baby. Missing height or weight data defaulted to the population median of 165 cm and 65 kg, respectively.

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