Skip to Main Content
Table 2

Body weight and composition, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk markers after 24 weeks on an LC diet or an energy-matched HC diet*

LC diet (n = 46)
HC diet (n = 47)
Week 24ChangeWeek 24ChangeP value
Body weight and composition      
 Body weight (kg) 88.1 (13.7) −12.0 (6.3) 89.9 (14.9) −11.5 (5.5) 0.57 
 BMI (kg/m230.0 (4.4) −4.0 (2.0) 30.9 (4.2) −4.0 (1.8) 0.74 
 Waist circumference (cm) 100.5 (10.9) −10.6 (7.1) 103.2 (11.9) −9.1 (6.4) 0.25 
 Total FFM (kg) 58.8 (10.0) −1.7 (2.0) 57.7 (10.6) −1.9 (1.7) 0.66 
 Total FM (kg) 29.1 (11.8) −10.2 (5.7) 32.2 (11.3) −9.6 (5.2) 0.64 
 FM-to-FFM ratio (kg/kg) 0.5 (0.2) −0.2 (0.1) 0.6 (0.2) −0.1 (0.1) 0.76 
Glycemic control      
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.8 (1.5) −1.1 (2.2) 6.7 (1.6) −1.6 (2.5) 0.67 
 Mean glucose (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >8.6 6.9 (1.2) −3.4 (2.2) 7.6 (1.8) −2.5 (1.6) 0.01†† 
  Baseline ≤8.6 6.2 (0.8) −0.9 (1.2) 6.6 (1.1) −0.8 (1.0)  
 Minimum glucose (mmol/L)§ 4.2 (0.9) −1.9 (2.0) 4.3 (1.1) −1.6 (1.6) 0.81 
 Maximum glucose (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >13.2 10.1 (2.3) −6.3 (2.6) 12.7 (3.7) −3.6 (4.0) 0.04‡‡ 
  Baseline ≤13.2 9.3 (1.7) −1.4 (2.3) 9.3 (1.8) −2.1 (2.1) 
 Glucose range (mmol/L)§ 5.5 (2.0) −3.6 (3.1) 7.1 (3.5) −2.5 (3.8) 0.049 
 SDintraday (mmol/L)§ 1.1 (0.5) −0.9 (0.7) 1.5 (0.7) −0.6 (0.8) 0.004 
 SDinterday (mmol/L) 0.3 (0.2) −0.2 (0.5) 0.4 (0.3) −0.1 (0.5) 0.06 
 MAGE (mmol/L)§ 2.9 (1.4) −2.3 (2.0) 3.9 (2.1) −1.4 (2.3) 0.03 
 CONGA-1 (mmol/L)§ 1.0 (0.4) −0.6 (0.5) 1.4 (0.6) −0.3 (0.6) 0.002 
 CONGA-4 (mmol/L)§ 1.6 (0.8) −1.4 (1.1) 2.1 (1.1) −0.8 (1.2) 0.005 
 MODD (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.5) −0.8 (0.7) 1.5 (0.7) −0.5 (0.9) 0.002 
 AUCtotal per min (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >18.0 13.3 (2.7) −7.9 (5.0) 15.4 (4.0) −5.4 (3.7) 0.005§§ 
  Baseline ≤18.0 12.5 (1.7) −1.6 (3.5) 12.5 (2.8) −2.5 (3.6) 
CVD risk markers      
 SBP (mmHg) 120.1 (11.4) −11.0 (10.6) 122.9 (14.2) −8.7 (12.5) 0.26 
 DBP (mmHg) 72.4 (6.3) −8.2 (5.6) 74.3 (7.5) −6.4 (7.8) 0.10 
 Insulin (mU/L) 8.7 (4.7) −7.7 (6.2) 9.5 (4.7) −6.5 (5.7) 0.22 
 HOMA2-IR 1.2 (0.6) −1.1 (0.9) 1.3 (0.7) −1.0 (0.8) 0.23 
 HOMA2-%B 62.3 (30.8) −8.8 (19.9) 64.2 (25.1) −4.7 (22.9) 0.12 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.0 (0.9) −0.3 (0.70) 4.0 (0.9) −0.3 (0.9) 0.89 
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.1 (0.8) −0.3 (0.5) 2.1 (0.8) −0.3 (0.7) 0.81 
 HDL-C (mmol/L)      
  Baseline <1.3 1.3 (0.2) 0.2 (0.3) 1.1 (0.2) 0.05 (0.2) 0.007‖‖ 
  Baseline ≥1.3 1.5 (0.2) 0.03 (0.2) 1.6 (0.2) −0.06 (0.2) 
 TG (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.5) −0.5 (0.5) 1.3 (0.5) −0.1 (0.5) 0.001 
 CRP (mg/L)# 2.1 (2.1) −0.6 (1.7) 1.6 (1.5) −0.6 (1.7) 0.62 
Medications      
 Antiglycemic MES 0.8 (0.7) −0.5 (0.5) 1.0 (1.1) −0.2 (0.5) 0.003 
 Proportion of cohort that achieved decrease in MES      
  ≥20% decrease, n (%) 31 (67.4)  13 (27.7)  <0.005 
  ≥50% decrease, n (%) 16 (34.8)  8 (17.0)  0.05 
Physical activity**      
 Mean activity count (counts/min) 232.7 (88.5) 44.3 (57.9) 232.5 (78) 51.7 (45.3) 0.51 
 MVPA (min/day) 58.0 (25.9) 11.8 (17.0) 55.7 (21.6) 12.6 (13.0) 0.83 
 MVPA (% of total wear time) 4.3 (1.9) 0.8 (1.2) 4.1 (1.6) 0.9 (1.0) 0.81 
LC diet (n = 46)
HC diet (n = 47)
Week 24ChangeWeek 24ChangeP value
Body weight and composition      
 Body weight (kg) 88.1 (13.7) −12.0 (6.3) 89.9 (14.9) −11.5 (5.5) 0.57 
 BMI (kg/m230.0 (4.4) −4.0 (2.0) 30.9 (4.2) −4.0 (1.8) 0.74 
 Waist circumference (cm) 100.5 (10.9) −10.6 (7.1) 103.2 (11.9) −9.1 (6.4) 0.25 
 Total FFM (kg) 58.8 (10.0) −1.7 (2.0) 57.7 (10.6) −1.9 (1.7) 0.66 
 Total FM (kg) 29.1 (11.8) −10.2 (5.7) 32.2 (11.3) −9.6 (5.2) 0.64 
 FM-to-FFM ratio (kg/kg) 0.5 (0.2) −0.2 (0.1) 0.6 (0.2) −0.1 (0.1) 0.76 
Glycemic control      
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.8 (1.5) −1.1 (2.2) 6.7 (1.6) −1.6 (2.5) 0.67 
 Mean glucose (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >8.6 6.9 (1.2) −3.4 (2.2) 7.6 (1.8) −2.5 (1.6) 0.01†† 
  Baseline ≤8.6 6.2 (0.8) −0.9 (1.2) 6.6 (1.1) −0.8 (1.0)  
 Minimum glucose (mmol/L)§ 4.2 (0.9) −1.9 (2.0) 4.3 (1.1) −1.6 (1.6) 0.81 
 Maximum glucose (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >13.2 10.1 (2.3) −6.3 (2.6) 12.7 (3.7) −3.6 (4.0) 0.04‡‡ 
  Baseline ≤13.2 9.3 (1.7) −1.4 (2.3) 9.3 (1.8) −2.1 (2.1) 
 Glucose range (mmol/L)§ 5.5 (2.0) −3.6 (3.1) 7.1 (3.5) −2.5 (3.8) 0.049 
 SDintraday (mmol/L)§ 1.1 (0.5) −0.9 (0.7) 1.5 (0.7) −0.6 (0.8) 0.004 
 SDinterday (mmol/L) 0.3 (0.2) −0.2 (0.5) 0.4 (0.3) −0.1 (0.5) 0.06 
 MAGE (mmol/L)§ 2.9 (1.4) −2.3 (2.0) 3.9 (2.1) −1.4 (2.3) 0.03 
 CONGA-1 (mmol/L)§ 1.0 (0.4) −0.6 (0.5) 1.4 (0.6) −0.3 (0.6) 0.002 
 CONGA-4 (mmol/L)§ 1.6 (0.8) −1.4 (1.1) 2.1 (1.1) −0.8 (1.2) 0.005 
 MODD (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.5) −0.8 (0.7) 1.5 (0.7) −0.5 (0.9) 0.002 
 AUCtotal per min (mmol/L)§      
  Baseline >18.0 13.3 (2.7) −7.9 (5.0) 15.4 (4.0) −5.4 (3.7) 0.005§§ 
  Baseline ≤18.0 12.5 (1.7) −1.6 (3.5) 12.5 (2.8) −2.5 (3.6) 
CVD risk markers      
 SBP (mmHg) 120.1 (11.4) −11.0 (10.6) 122.9 (14.2) −8.7 (12.5) 0.26 
 DBP (mmHg) 72.4 (6.3) −8.2 (5.6) 74.3 (7.5) −6.4 (7.8) 0.10 
 Insulin (mU/L) 8.7 (4.7) −7.7 (6.2) 9.5 (4.7) −6.5 (5.7) 0.22 
 HOMA2-IR 1.2 (0.6) −1.1 (0.9) 1.3 (0.7) −1.0 (0.8) 0.23 
 HOMA2-%B 62.3 (30.8) −8.8 (19.9) 64.2 (25.1) −4.7 (22.9) 0.12 
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.0 (0.9) −0.3 (0.70) 4.0 (0.9) −0.3 (0.9) 0.89 
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.1 (0.8) −0.3 (0.5) 2.1 (0.8) −0.3 (0.7) 0.81 
 HDL-C (mmol/L)      
  Baseline <1.3 1.3 (0.2) 0.2 (0.3) 1.1 (0.2) 0.05 (0.2) 0.007‖‖ 
  Baseline ≥1.3 1.5 (0.2) 0.03 (0.2) 1.6 (0.2) −0.06 (0.2) 
 TG (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.5) −0.5 (0.5) 1.3 (0.5) −0.1 (0.5) 0.001 
 CRP (mg/L)# 2.1 (2.1) −0.6 (1.7) 1.6 (1.5) −0.6 (1.7) 0.62 
Medications      
 Antiglycemic MES 0.8 (0.7) −0.5 (0.5) 1.0 (1.1) −0.2 (0.5) 0.003 
 Proportion of cohort that achieved decrease in MES      
  ≥20% decrease, n (%) 31 (67.4)  13 (27.7)  <0.005 
  ≥50% decrease, n (%) 16 (34.8)  8 (17.0)  0.05 
Physical activity**      
 Mean activity count (counts/min) 232.7 (88.5) 44.3 (57.9) 232.5 (78) 51.7 (45.3) 0.51 
 MVPA (min/day) 58.0 (25.9) 11.8 (17.0) 55.7 (21.6) 12.6 (13.0) 0.83 
 MVPA (% of total wear time) 4.3 (1.9) 0.8 (1.2) 4.1 (1.6) 0.9 (1.0) 0.81 

Data are means (SD), unless otherwise stated. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; MVPA, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; SBP, systolic blood pressure. To convert mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 18 (for glucose), 38.7 (for cholesterol), and 88.6 (for TGs).

*Total analyzed n = 93 (LC 46 and HC 47) for all data unless otherwise stated.

P value refers to between-group differences over time (diet effect) by ANCOVA and J-N procedure where appropriate.

‡Total analyzed n = 92 (LC 45 and HC 47) for body composition data; DEXA scan was not performed at baseline for one participant in LC diet group.

§Total analyzed n = 91 (LC 46 and HC 45) for CGM data; CGM device did not collect valid data for two participants in the HC diet group at 24 weeks due to poor system connectivity.

‖Total analyzed n = 83 (LC 42 and HC 41) that met requirement of 48-h valid CGM data collection to calculate comparisons between 2 successive days.

¶Total analyzed n = 82 (LC 41 and HC 41) for insulin and HOMA2 data; 11 participants on insulin medication were excluded from these analyses.

#Total analyzed n = 84 (LC 43 and HC 41) for CRP data; nine participants with CRP >10 mg/L were excluded from these analyses.

**Total analyzed n = 91 (LC 45 and HC 46); two participants with accelerometry data that did not meet the validity criteria were excluded.

††Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline mean glucose >8.6 mmol/L (LC 18 and HC 22).

‡‡Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline maximum glucose >13.2 mmol/L (LC 26 and HC 28).

§§Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline AUCtotal per min >18.0 mmol/L (LC 14 and HC 17).

‖‖Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline HDL-C <1.3 mmol/L (LC 33 and HC 28).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal