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Table 2

Characteristics (median [quartile 1, quartile 3]) or n (%) of the people and their treatment after 12 months of insulin treatment, according to their weight gain at 12 months, and β coefficients from linear models adjusted for the investigational site as a random factor

Weight gain at 12 months (kg)
β coefficient*(95% CI)P
Item<2.0 n = 1,0872.0–4.9 n = 5815.0–9.9 n = 405≥10 n = 106
A1C (%) 7.3 (6.7, 8.3) 7.6 (6.9, 8.4) 7.6 (6.9, 8.5) 7.7 (6.8, 8.6) 1.968* (0.794 to 3.141) 0.001 
A1C (mmol/mol) 56 (50, 67) 60 (52, 68) 60 (52, 69) 61 (51, 70) 0.180 (0.073 to 0.287) 0.001 
Insulin regimen       <0.001 
 Basal insulin alone 531 (49%) 256 (44%) 104 (26%) 30 (28%) Reference   
 Basal + mealtime 192 (18%) 129 (22%) 119 (29%) 37 (35%) 1.964 (1.441 to 2.487) <0.001 
 Mealtime alone 39 (4%) 16 (2%) 10 (2%) 1 (1%) −0.268 (–1.443 to 0.908) 0.665 
 Premix 276 (25%) 146 (25%) 137 (34%) 32 (30%) 1.269 (0.770 to 1.767) <0.001 
 Other 49 (4%) 34 (6%) 35 (9%) 6 (6%) 1.686 (0.796 to 2.576) <0.001 
Other diabetes drugs       0.008 
 None 360 (33%) 215 (37%) 175 (43%) 49 (46%) Reference   
 One 410 (38%) 182 (31%) 147 (36%) 37 (35%) −0.522 (–0.987 to 60.058) 0.027 
 Two 267 (25%) 155 (27%) 70 (17%) 17 (16%) −0.878 (–1.415 to –0.342) 0.001 
 Three or more 50 (5%) 29 (5%) 13 (3%) 3 (3%) −0.948 (–1.949 to 0.053) 0.063 
Biguanides 532 (49%) 267 (46%) 167 (41%) 46 (43%) −0.504 (–0.907 to –0.101) 0.014 
Sulfonylureas 365 (34%) 201 (35%) 87 (22%) 23 (22%) −0.584 (–1.026 to –0.142) 0.010 
Daily insulin dose (IU/kg) 0.33 (0.21, 0.52) 0.40 (0.26, 0.56) 0.46 (0.33, 0.63) 0.51 (0.33, 0.64) 1.529 (1.202 to 1.856) <0.001 
Weight gain at 12 months (kg)
β coefficient*(95% CI)P
Item<2.0 n = 1,0872.0–4.9 n = 5815.0–9.9 n = 405≥10 n = 106
A1C (%) 7.3 (6.7, 8.3) 7.6 (6.9, 8.4) 7.6 (6.9, 8.5) 7.7 (6.8, 8.6) 1.968* (0.794 to 3.141) 0.001 
A1C (mmol/mol) 56 (50, 67) 60 (52, 68) 60 (52, 69) 61 (51, 70) 0.180 (0.073 to 0.287) 0.001 
Insulin regimen       <0.001 
 Basal insulin alone 531 (49%) 256 (44%) 104 (26%) 30 (28%) Reference   
 Basal + mealtime 192 (18%) 129 (22%) 119 (29%) 37 (35%) 1.964 (1.441 to 2.487) <0.001 
 Mealtime alone 39 (4%) 16 (2%) 10 (2%) 1 (1%) −0.268 (–1.443 to 0.908) 0.665 
 Premix 276 (25%) 146 (25%) 137 (34%) 32 (30%) 1.269 (0.770 to 1.767) <0.001 
 Other 49 (4%) 34 (6%) 35 (9%) 6 (6%) 1.686 (0.796 to 2.576) <0.001 
Other diabetes drugs       0.008 
 None 360 (33%) 215 (37%) 175 (43%) 49 (46%) Reference   
 One 410 (38%) 182 (31%) 147 (36%) 37 (35%) −0.522 (–0.987 to 60.058) 0.027 
 Two 267 (25%) 155 (27%) 70 (17%) 17 (16%) −0.878 (–1.415 to –0.342) 0.001 
 Three or more 50 (5%) 29 (5%) 13 (3%) 3 (3%) −0.948 (–1.949 to 0.053) 0.063 
Biguanides 532 (49%) 267 (46%) 167 (41%) 46 (43%) −0.504 (–0.907 to –0.101) 0.014 
Sulfonylureas 365 (34%) 201 (35%) 87 (22%) 23 (22%) −0.584 (–1.026 to –0.142) 0.010 
Daily insulin dose (IU/kg) 0.33 (0.21, 0.52) 0.40 (0.26, 0.56) 0.46 (0.33, 0.63) 0.51 (0.33, 0.64) 1.529 (1.202 to 1.856) <0.001 

*For categorical measures, β coefficients are given for yes vs. no, or against the reference group stated.

†Data were loge transformed for analysis, so the β coefficients are for loge of a unit difference.

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