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Table 1

Comparative mitochondrial energetics of β-hydroxybutyrate oxidation

GlucosePalmitatePyruvateβ-HB
O2 used (L/mol) 134 515 56 101 
Heat of combustion (kcal/mol) 670 2,385 279 487 
O2 cost of calorie (mL/kcal) 200 216 201 207 
Heat of combustion per C2 (kcal/mol) 224 298 186 244 
GlucosePalmitatePyruvateβ-HB
O2 used (L/mol) 134 515 56 101 
Heat of combustion (kcal/mol) 670 2,385 279 487 
O2 cost of calorie (mL/kcal) 200 216 201 207 
Heat of combustion per C2 (kcal/mol) 224 298 186 244 

In terms of oxygen (O2) cost, the energy yield of β-HB oxidation is comparable to those of glucose and pyruvate, and lower than that of palmitate. If the energy yield is calculated per C2 unit, β-HB oxidation is superior to glucose and far better than palmitate. β-HB, β-hydroxybutyrate.

¶According to Sato et al. (41).

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