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Table 1

Baseline characteristics in terms of quintiles of differences in energy intake between dinner and breakfast: NHANES, 2003–2014

Quintile 1 (N = 943)Quintile 2 (N = 938)Quintile 3 (N = 940)Quintile 4 (N = 939)Quintile 5 (N = 939)P
Age, years 59.49 (58.28–60.71) 61.28 (60.19–62.37) 61.71 (60.53–62.89) 58.44 (57.18–59.69) 55.46 (54.32–56.61) <0.001 
Female, % 46.99 (43.21–50.80) 58.21 (53.85–62.45) 60.18 (56.09–64.12) 49.70 (45.20–54.20) 33.80 (29.90–37.90) <0.001 
Non-Hispanic white 44.80 (39.10–50.60) 59.82 (54.60–64.82) 65.28 (60.99–69.33) 67.67 (62.87–72.13) 68.73 (63.76–73.31) <0.001 
Current smoking, % 19.60 (16.28–23.40) 15.41 (12.77–18.49) 15.27 (12.64–18.33) 19.79 (16.57–23.46) 26.85 (22.96–31.14) 0.163 
Current drinking, % 60.60 (56.52–64.53) 53.93 (48.80–58.97) 59.84 (55.99–63.58) 64.08 (59.60–68.33) 71.93 (67.40–76.06) 0.083 
College graduate or above 11.82 (8.78–15.73) 28.21 (24.1–32.73) 17.84 (14.39–21.91) 20.08 (16.56–24.13) 20.88 (17.16–25.17) <0.001 
>$100,000 annual household income 7.28 (5.14–10.23) 9.03 (6.49–12.42) 9.09 (6.33–12.88) 9.29 (6.59–12.96) 12.57 (9.36–16.67) <0.001 
BMI, kg/m2 31.63 (31.06–32.19) 31.59 (30.90–32.29) 32.55 (31.86–33.24) 32.88 (32.18–33.59) 33.47 (32.70–34.23) 0.001 
Regular exercise, % 15.15 (11.98–18.98) 20.73 (17.58–24.27) 17.49 (13.53–22.32) 22.04 (18.45–26.10) 17.48 (13.79–21.91) 0.076 
Dietary supplement use, % 47.88 (43.82–51.97) 55.56 (51.16–59.88) 55.55 (51.08–59.92) 59.36 (54.50–64.04) 51.31 (46.96–55.65) 0.342 
Duration of diabetes, years 16.66 (0.97) 17.23 (1.02) 18.05 (1.12) 19.13 (1.17) 17.39 (1.45) 0.001 
Family history of diabetes, % 2.08 (1.23–3.50) 2.77 (1.79–4.24) 1.90 (1.16–3.08) 3.77 (2.20–6.40) 3.50 (2.31–5.27) 0.186 
Ever controlled diabetes, % 43.38 (39.11–47.76) 51.16 (46.24–56.05) 52.23 (48.04–56.38) 48.45 (44.00–52.92) 49.62 (44.98–54.27) 0.008 
Prevalent hypertension, % 63.49 (58.68–68.05) 67.63 (63.29–71.68) 70.44 (66.64–73.98) 65.20 (60.72–69.42) 59.80 (55.92–63.55) 0.114 
Ever controlled hypertension, % 55.92 (51.23–60.51) 62.01 (57.34–66.47) 63.78 (59.68–67.7) 58.20 (53.79–62.48) 52.29 (48.12–56.42) 0.003 
Prevalent dyslipidemia, % 59.29 (54.73–63.7) 64.15 (60.33–67.79) 60.94 (56.53–65.18) 63.93 (59.74–67.91) 59.77 (55.84–63.59) 0.234 
Ever controlled dyslipidemia, % 49.00 (45.08–52.93) 55.65 (51.34–59.88) 51.98 (47.28–56.63) 52.40 (48.20–56.57) 49.62 (45.79–53.46) 0.174 
Total energy, kcal/day 1,789.7 (1,721.2–1,858.1) 1,611.0 (1,546.6–1,675.5) 1,694.7 (1,635.07–1,754.47) 1,902.8 (1,840.4–1,965.2) 2,400.3 (2,329.96–2,470.73) <0.001 
AHEI 44.72 (0.59) 43.30 (0.61) 44.98 (0.64) 49.34 (0.54) 55.12 (0.52) <0.001 
Energy at breakfast, kcal/day 656.62 (12.35) 420.16 (9.77) 366.37 (10.06) 333.66 (9.16) 290.08 (10.84) <0.001 
Energy at dinner, kcal/day 349.67 (10.33) 452.85 (9.90) 589.42 (10.08) 766.73 (9.44) 1,229.33 (18.67) <0.001 
SBP, mmHg 131.42 (129.72–133.12) 130.35 (128.69–132.01) 131.88 (129.88–133.88) 129.42 (127.77–131.07) 129.35 (127.91–130.78) 0.044 
DBP, mmHg 68.95 (67.63–70.27) 68.56 (67.40–69.71) 66.90 (65.47–68.33) 69.82 (68.50–71.14) 70.63 (69.38–71.89) <0.001 
Serum glucose, mmol/L 8.73 (8.39–9.08) 8.39 (8.07–8.71) 8.03 (7.75–8.31) 8.32 (7.99–8.66) 8.57 (8.29–8.85) 0.917 
Glycohemoglobin, % 7.37 (7.22–7.53) 7.22 (7.09–7.34) 7.13 (7.00–7.26) 7.12 (6.99–7.24) 7.32 (7.18–7.46) 0.745 
Triglycerides, mmol/L 2.33 (2.13–2.52) 2.31 (2.02–2.60) 2.27 (2.06–2.49) 2.28 (2.09–2.47) 2.31 (2.16–2.45) 0.983 
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.21 (1.18–1.24) 1.26 (1.23–1.29) 1.24 (1.21–1.28) 1.23 (1.19–1.26) 1.19 (1.16–1.22) 0.007 
Quintile 1 (N = 943)Quintile 2 (N = 938)Quintile 3 (N = 940)Quintile 4 (N = 939)Quintile 5 (N = 939)P
Age, years 59.49 (58.28–60.71) 61.28 (60.19–62.37) 61.71 (60.53–62.89) 58.44 (57.18–59.69) 55.46 (54.32–56.61) <0.001 
Female, % 46.99 (43.21–50.80) 58.21 (53.85–62.45) 60.18 (56.09–64.12) 49.70 (45.20–54.20) 33.80 (29.90–37.90) <0.001 
Non-Hispanic white 44.80 (39.10–50.60) 59.82 (54.60–64.82) 65.28 (60.99–69.33) 67.67 (62.87–72.13) 68.73 (63.76–73.31) <0.001 
Current smoking, % 19.60 (16.28–23.40) 15.41 (12.77–18.49) 15.27 (12.64–18.33) 19.79 (16.57–23.46) 26.85 (22.96–31.14) 0.163 
Current drinking, % 60.60 (56.52–64.53) 53.93 (48.80–58.97) 59.84 (55.99–63.58) 64.08 (59.60–68.33) 71.93 (67.40–76.06) 0.083 
College graduate or above 11.82 (8.78–15.73) 28.21 (24.1–32.73) 17.84 (14.39–21.91) 20.08 (16.56–24.13) 20.88 (17.16–25.17) <0.001 
>$100,000 annual household income 7.28 (5.14–10.23) 9.03 (6.49–12.42) 9.09 (6.33–12.88) 9.29 (6.59–12.96) 12.57 (9.36–16.67) <0.001 
BMI, kg/m2 31.63 (31.06–32.19) 31.59 (30.90–32.29) 32.55 (31.86–33.24) 32.88 (32.18–33.59) 33.47 (32.70–34.23) 0.001 
Regular exercise, % 15.15 (11.98–18.98) 20.73 (17.58–24.27) 17.49 (13.53–22.32) 22.04 (18.45–26.10) 17.48 (13.79–21.91) 0.076 
Dietary supplement use, % 47.88 (43.82–51.97) 55.56 (51.16–59.88) 55.55 (51.08–59.92) 59.36 (54.50–64.04) 51.31 (46.96–55.65) 0.342 
Duration of diabetes, years 16.66 (0.97) 17.23 (1.02) 18.05 (1.12) 19.13 (1.17) 17.39 (1.45) 0.001 
Family history of diabetes, % 2.08 (1.23–3.50) 2.77 (1.79–4.24) 1.90 (1.16–3.08) 3.77 (2.20–6.40) 3.50 (2.31–5.27) 0.186 
Ever controlled diabetes, % 43.38 (39.11–47.76) 51.16 (46.24–56.05) 52.23 (48.04–56.38) 48.45 (44.00–52.92) 49.62 (44.98–54.27) 0.008 
Prevalent hypertension, % 63.49 (58.68–68.05) 67.63 (63.29–71.68) 70.44 (66.64–73.98) 65.20 (60.72–69.42) 59.80 (55.92–63.55) 0.114 
Ever controlled hypertension, % 55.92 (51.23–60.51) 62.01 (57.34–66.47) 63.78 (59.68–67.7) 58.20 (53.79–62.48) 52.29 (48.12–56.42) 0.003 
Prevalent dyslipidemia, % 59.29 (54.73–63.7) 64.15 (60.33–67.79) 60.94 (56.53–65.18) 63.93 (59.74–67.91) 59.77 (55.84–63.59) 0.234 
Ever controlled dyslipidemia, % 49.00 (45.08–52.93) 55.65 (51.34–59.88) 51.98 (47.28–56.63) 52.40 (48.20–56.57) 49.62 (45.79–53.46) 0.174 
Total energy, kcal/day 1,789.7 (1,721.2–1,858.1) 1,611.0 (1,546.6–1,675.5) 1,694.7 (1,635.07–1,754.47) 1,902.8 (1,840.4–1,965.2) 2,400.3 (2,329.96–2,470.73) <0.001 
AHEI 44.72 (0.59) 43.30 (0.61) 44.98 (0.64) 49.34 (0.54) 55.12 (0.52) <0.001 
Energy at breakfast, kcal/day 656.62 (12.35) 420.16 (9.77) 366.37 (10.06) 333.66 (9.16) 290.08 (10.84) <0.001 
Energy at dinner, kcal/day 349.67 (10.33) 452.85 (9.90) 589.42 (10.08) 766.73 (9.44) 1,229.33 (18.67) <0.001 
SBP, mmHg 131.42 (129.72–133.12) 130.35 (128.69–132.01) 131.88 (129.88–133.88) 129.42 (127.77–131.07) 129.35 (127.91–130.78) 0.044 
DBP, mmHg 68.95 (67.63–70.27) 68.56 (67.40–69.71) 66.90 (65.47–68.33) 69.82 (68.50–71.14) 70.63 (69.38–71.89) <0.001 
Serum glucose, mmol/L 8.73 (8.39–9.08) 8.39 (8.07–8.71) 8.03 (7.75–8.31) 8.32 (7.99–8.66) 8.57 (8.29–8.85) 0.917 
Glycohemoglobin, % 7.37 (7.22–7.53) 7.22 (7.09–7.34) 7.13 (7.00–7.26) 7.12 (6.99–7.24) 7.32 (7.18–7.46) 0.745 
Triglycerides, mmol/L 2.33 (2.13–2.52) 2.31 (2.02–2.60) 2.27 (2.06–2.49) 2.28 (2.09–2.47) 2.31 (2.16–2.45) 0.983 
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.21 (1.18–1.24) 1.26 (1.23–1.29) 1.24 (1.21–1.28) 1.23 (1.19–1.26) 1.19 (1.16–1.22) 0.007 

Continuous variables are presented as weighted mean (95% CI). Categorical variables are presented as weighted percentages (95% CI). All data analyses conducted in the current study were based on estimates with sample weights provided by NHANES.

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