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Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants in the NHS and NHSII according to total coffee consumption*

Screening stage (n = 949)Validation stage (n = 646)
Nondrinker≤1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/dayNondrinker≤1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/day
Participants, n (%) 163 (17) 178 (19) 420 (44) 188 (20) 83 (13) 113 (17) 282 (44) 168 (26) 
White (%) 98 97 98 100 99 97 98 97 
Fasting blood (%) 67 75 67 55 70 74 69 70 
Age at blood draw (years) 46.7 (7.5) 49.1 (8.1) 51.0 (8.0) 52.1 (7.2) 46.8 (7.4) 50.6 (7.4) 51.9 (7.7) 52.7 (7.8) 
Total coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.5 (0.2) 2.1 (0.5) 4.4 (0.8) 0.0 (0.0) 0.6 (0.2) 2.2 (0.4) 4.3 (0.7) 
Caffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.3) 1.5 (0.8) 3.0 (1.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.2) 1.6 (0.8) 3.1 (1.1) 
Decaffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.2 (0.2) 0.6 (0.7) 1.4 (1.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.2) 0.6 (0.6) 1.2 (1.0) 
BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 (3.8) 25.6 (3.8) 25.0 (3.8) 25.4 (3.4) 26.5 (2.8) 25.4 (2.8) 25.1 (3.8) 24.8 (2.6) 
Physical activity (MET h/week) 23.2 (14.5) 19.0 (13.1) 19.7 (15.9) 18.7 (11.3) 16.7 (9.7) 19.2 (13.4) 18.2 (17.0) 16.1 (9.4) 
Smoking status (%)         
 Never 83 71 54 39 75 62 44 39 
 Past 15 25 38 48 19 34 46 42 
 Current 13 10 19 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 2.5 (4.3) 3.4 (3.8) 6.7 (7.9) 5.4 (5.1) 3.2 (3.3) 2.8 (3.1) 6.0 (6.8) 6.9 (6.8) 
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1,786 (293) 1,862 (301) 1,816 (410) 1,847 (340) 1,854 (227) 1,833 (244) 1,785 (392) 1,818 (290) 
Hypertension (%) 17 15 18 15 13 15 12 15 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 29 39 30 33 26 43 32 34 
Postmenopausal (%) 25 32 41 40 30 52 54 55 
Current menopausal hormone use (%) 41 54 51 57 93 55 61 56 
Regular multivitamin use (%) 53 49 50 46 49 41 48 41 
Regular aspirin/NSAID use (%)§ 46 46 52 58 54 50 59 73 
Screening stage (n = 949)Validation stage (n = 646)
Nondrinker≤1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/dayNondrinker≤1 cup/day2–3 cups/day≥4 cups/day
Participants, n (%) 163 (17) 178 (19) 420 (44) 188 (20) 83 (13) 113 (17) 282 (44) 168 (26) 
White (%) 98 97 98 100 99 97 98 97 
Fasting blood (%) 67 75 67 55 70 74 69 70 
Age at blood draw (years) 46.7 (7.5) 49.1 (8.1) 51.0 (8.0) 52.1 (7.2) 46.8 (7.4) 50.6 (7.4) 51.9 (7.7) 52.7 (7.8) 
Total coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.5 (0.2) 2.1 (0.5) 4.4 (0.8) 0.0 (0.0) 0.6 (0.2) 2.2 (0.4) 4.3 (0.7) 
Caffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.3) 1.5 (0.8) 3.0 (1.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.2) 1.6 (0.8) 3.1 (1.1) 
Decaffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.0 (0.0) 0.2 (0.2) 0.6 (0.7) 1.4 (1.1) 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 (0.2) 0.6 (0.6) 1.2 (1.0) 
BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 (3.8) 25.6 (3.8) 25.0 (3.8) 25.4 (3.4) 26.5 (2.8) 25.4 (2.8) 25.1 (3.8) 24.8 (2.6) 
Physical activity (MET h/week) 23.2 (14.5) 19.0 (13.1) 19.7 (15.9) 18.7 (11.3) 16.7 (9.7) 19.2 (13.4) 18.2 (17.0) 16.1 (9.4) 
Smoking status (%)         
 Never 83 71 54 39 75 62 44 39 
 Past 15 25 38 48 19 34 46 42 
 Current 13 10 19 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 2.5 (4.3) 3.4 (3.8) 6.7 (7.9) 5.4 (5.1) 3.2 (3.3) 2.8 (3.1) 6.0 (6.8) 6.9 (6.8) 
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1,786 (293) 1,862 (301) 1,816 (410) 1,847 (340) 1,854 (227) 1,833 (244) 1,785 (392) 1,818 (290) 
Hypertension (%) 17 15 18 15 13 15 12 15 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 29 39 30 33 26 43 32 34 
Postmenopausal (%) 25 32 41 40 30 52 54 55 
Current menopausal hormone use (%) 41 54 51 57 93 55 61 56 
Regular multivitamin use (%) 53 49 50 46 49 41 48 41 
Regular aspirin/NSAID use (%)§ 46 46 52 58 54 50 59 73 

Mean (SD) is presented for continuous variables and percentage for categorical variables.

*

All variables are standardized by age at blood draw except age.

Cumulative average assessments most proximate to blood draw were used to derive the values.

Defined in menopausal women only.

§

Regular users are defined as those taking ≥2 tablets of aspirin (325 mg/tablet) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) per week.

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