Skip to Main Content
Table 3

Association between coffee-related metabolites and risk of type 2 diabetes in the NHS and NHSII*

HMDB IDMetaboliteSuper class207 case vs. 621 control subjects
OR per 1 SD (95% CI)PFDR
Positively associated with coffee      
 HMDB00610 C18:2 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.59 (0.48, 0.72) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB00918 C18:1 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.60 (0.50, 0.73) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB06726 C20:4 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.61 (0.50, 0.75) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB00875 Trigonelline Alkaloids and derivatives 0.87 (0.70, 1.08) 0.22 0.28 
 HMDB00630 Cytosine Organoheterocyclic compounds 0.93 (0.77, 1.13) 0.46 0.49 
 HMDB04400 AAMU Organic nitrogen compounds 1.04 (0.82, 1.33) 0.74 0.76 
 HMDB01991 7-methylxanthine Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.09 (0.87, 1.35) 0.46 0.49 
 HMDB13678 4-hydroxyhippuric acid Benzenoids 1.12 (0.92, 1.37) 0.26 0.33 
 HMDB01847 Caffeine Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.18 (0.93, 1.49) 0.17 0.27 
 HMDB11103 1,7-dimethyluric acid Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.22 (0.96, 1.56) 0.11 0.19 
 HMDB00062 l-carnitine Organic nitrogen compounds 1.25 (0.99, 1.57) 0.06 0.12 
Negatively associated with coffee      
 HMDB05377 C50:2 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 2.06 (1.60, 2.65) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07102 C34:1 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 2.03 (1.60, 2.58) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB05369 C52:2 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.99 (1.52, 2.61) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07132 C34:3 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.83 (1.40, 2.41) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07218 C36:2 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.81 (1.43, 2.29) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07103 C34:2 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.80 (1.43, 2.28) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB05433 C50:3 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.72 (1.33, 2.22) <0.001 <0.001 
 HMDB05384 C52:3 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.46 (1.14, 1.87) 0.003 0.01 
 HMDB05435 C50:4 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.39 (1.09, 1.76) 0.01 0.02 
 HMDB10471 C50:5 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.38 (1.10, 1.73) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB07219 C36:3 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.36 (1.10, 1.70) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB10497 C50:6 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.35 (1.09, 1.67) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB10517 C52:7 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.17 (0.95, 1.45) 0.14 0.24 
 HMDB05436 C52:6 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.16 (0.93, 1.45) 0.20 0.28 
 HMDB10518 C54:8 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.99 (0.80, 1.22) 0.91 0.91 
 HMDB10498 C54:9 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.90 (0.73, 1.12) 0.34 0.39 
 HMDB05448 C56:9 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.89 (0.71, 1.10) 0.28 0.33 
 HMDB10513 C56:10 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.87 (0.71, 1.08) 0.20 0.28 
 HMDB11526 C22:6 LPE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.87 (0.70, 1.07) 0.18 0.28 
PCA (proportion)      
 First component (44.9%)   1.15 (1.08, 1.22) <0.0001  
 Second component (15.1%)   0.80 (0.71, 0.89) <0.0001  
 Third component (10.3%)   0.96 (0.86, 1.08) 0.49  
HMDB IDMetaboliteSuper class207 case vs. 621 control subjects
OR per 1 SD (95% CI)PFDR
Positively associated with coffee      
 HMDB00610 C18:2 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.59 (0.48, 0.72) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB00918 C18:1 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.60 (0.50, 0.73) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB06726 C20:4 CE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.61 (0.50, 0.75) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB00875 Trigonelline Alkaloids and derivatives 0.87 (0.70, 1.08) 0.22 0.28 
 HMDB00630 Cytosine Organoheterocyclic compounds 0.93 (0.77, 1.13) 0.46 0.49 
 HMDB04400 AAMU Organic nitrogen compounds 1.04 (0.82, 1.33) 0.74 0.76 
 HMDB01991 7-methylxanthine Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.09 (0.87, 1.35) 0.46 0.49 
 HMDB13678 4-hydroxyhippuric acid Benzenoids 1.12 (0.92, 1.37) 0.26 0.33 
 HMDB01847 Caffeine Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.18 (0.93, 1.49) 0.17 0.27 
 HMDB11103 1,7-dimethyluric acid Organoheterocyclic compounds 1.22 (0.96, 1.56) 0.11 0.19 
 HMDB00062 l-carnitine Organic nitrogen compounds 1.25 (0.99, 1.57) 0.06 0.12 
Negatively associated with coffee      
 HMDB05377 C50:2 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 2.06 (1.60, 2.65) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07102 C34:1 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 2.03 (1.60, 2.58) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB05369 C52:2 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.99 (1.52, 2.61) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07132 C34:3 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.83 (1.40, 2.41) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07218 C36:2 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.81 (1.43, 2.29) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB07103 C34:2 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.80 (1.43, 2.28) <0.0001 <0.001 
 HMDB05433 C50:3 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.72 (1.33, 2.22) <0.001 <0.001 
 HMDB05384 C52:3 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.46 (1.14, 1.87) 0.003 0.01 
 HMDB05435 C50:4 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.39 (1.09, 1.76) 0.01 0.02 
 HMDB10471 C50:5 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.38 (1.10, 1.73) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB07219 C36:3 DAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.36 (1.10, 1.70) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB10497 C50:6 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.35 (1.09, 1.67) 0.01 0.01 
 HMDB10517 C52:7 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.17 (0.95, 1.45) 0.14 0.24 
 HMDB05436 C52:6 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 1.16 (0.93, 1.45) 0.20 0.28 
 HMDB10518 C54:8 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.99 (0.80, 1.22) 0.91 0.91 
 HMDB10498 C54:9 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.90 (0.73, 1.12) 0.34 0.39 
 HMDB05448 C56:9 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.89 (0.71, 1.10) 0.28 0.33 
 HMDB10513 C56:10 TAG Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.87 (0.71, 1.08) 0.20 0.28 
 HMDB11526 C22:6 LPE Lipids and lipid-like molecules 0.87 (0.70, 1.07) 0.18 0.28 
PCA (proportion)      
 First component (44.9%)   1.15 (1.08, 1.22) <0.0001  
 Second component (15.1%)   0.80 (0.71, 0.89) <0.0001  
 Third component (10.3%)   0.96 (0.86, 1.08) 0.49  
*

Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to adjust for age at blood draw (continuous), race (White, non-White), cumulative average levels of BMI (<23.0, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–27.4, 27.5–29.9, ≥30.0 kg/m2), physical activity (<3.0, 3.0–8.9, 9.0–17.9, 18.0–26.9, ≥27.0 MET h/week), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, ≥15.0 g/day), smoking status (never smoker; past smoker, <30 pack-years; past smoker, ≥30 pack-years; current smoker, <30 pack-years; current smoker, ≥30 pack-years), whole grains (quintiles), fruits (quintiles), vegetables (quintiles), polyunsaturated fat–to–saturated fat ratio (quintiles), fish (quintiles), red meat (quintiles), sugar-sweetened beverages (quintiles), total energy intake (quintiles), regular multivitamin use (yes, no), regular aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (yes, no), family history of diabetes (yes, no), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal, unknown), and menopausal hormone therapy (never or past or current use).

PCA was performed for 30 coffee-related metabolites, and the top three components were linked to diabetes risk.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal