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Table 1

Participant characteristics on the basis of OSA severity categories

No OSA/untreated mild OSA (n = 61)Untreated moderate OSA (n = 47)Untreated severe OSA (n = 72)Treated OSA (n = 41)P value*
Demographics      
 Age (years) 53.0 ± 10.2 55.8 ± 8.3 55.3 ± 7.8 53.9 ± 8.1 0.306 
 Men 16 (26.2) 26 (55.3) 58 (80.6) 27 (65.9) <0.001 
Race/ethnicity     0.593 
 White 28 (45.9) 28 (59.6) 39 (54.2) 27 (65.9)  
 Black 23 (37.7) 16 (34.0) 22 (30.6) 11 (26.8)  
 Hispanic (any) 2 (3.3) 2 (4.3) 6 (8.3) 1 (2.4)  
 Asian 4 (6.6) 1 (2.1) 4 (5.6) 1 (2.4)  
 American Indian 1 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Mixed 3 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4)  
Diabetes at screening 14 (23.0) 10 (21.3) 25 (34.7) 10 (24.4) 0.305 
Weight (kg) 94.8 ± 16.6 101.5 ± 16.9 106.9 ± 18.5 108.6 ± 19.3 <0.001 
Waist (cm) 106.7 ± 12.7 112.7 ± 12.2 114.7 ± 12.9 117.3 ± 13.1 <0.001 
WHR 0.9 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m234.0 ± 5.3 34.7 ± 5.4 35.3 ± 5.5 36.6 ± 5.9 0.130 
Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m247 (77.0) 37 (78.7) 56 (78.9) 36 (87.8) 0.573 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 121.8 ± 13.9 128.7 ± 13.6 128.4 ± 12.4 128.1 ± 12.3 0.012 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 74.5 ± 11.0 77.7 ± 12.0 78.6 ± 9.8 77.1 ± 9.3 0.158 
HbA1c (%) 5.8 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.3 0.326 
ESS score 8.8 ± 5.3 7.7 ± 3.7 8.6 ± 4.7 8.6 ± 4.3 0.628 
Sleepy (Epworth >10) 23 (37.7) 17 (36.2) 27 (37.5) 15 (36.6) 0.998 
CPAP adherent 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 41 (100.0) <0.001 
CPAP use in subset adherent to CPAP (h/night) (n = 41) — — — 6.2 ± 1.1 NA 
Actigraphy measurements      
 Sleep time (h) 6.83 ± 0.82 6.59 ± 0.88 6.26 ± 1.12 6.70 ± 0.74 0.004 
 Activity duration (min) 974 ± 55 1,041 ± 208 991 ± 69 986 ± 49 0.015 
 Percent immobility 20.2 ± 8.6 19.1 ± 9.1 21.9 ± 8.9 19.1 ± 8.6 0.254 
 Total activity count 227,485 ± 76,012 247,953 ± 78,135 225,467 ± 78,741 231,039 ± 70,177 0.426 
 Activity (counts/min) 233 ± 77 244 ± 78 226 ± 79 234 ± 68 0.673 
PSG measurements      
 Total recording time (min) 449.0 ± 39.9 463.1 ± 35.2 458.8 ± 37.4 439.1 ± 66.9 0.048 
 Total sleep time (min) 370.3 ± 62.0 361.3 ± 68.1 361.0 ± 67.2 344.1 ± 96.9 0.362 
 Sleep efficiency (%) 85.0 (76.7, 91.0) 84.7 (70.0, 87.9) 82.1 (73.9, 89.1) 82.9 (70.7, 90.4) 0.356 
 REM sleep (%) 19.2 (15.8, 23.7) 19.3 (15.7, 25.1) 16.5 (11.0, 20.0) 12.1 (5.0, 19.2) <0.001 
 N3 sleep (%) 17.6 (10.1, 24.0) 14.1 (11.1, 22.2) 6.6 (1.0, 13.9) 9.3 (2.0, 17.0) <0.001 
 AHI (events/h) 8.6 (3.7, 12.5) 22.0 (16.9, 26.6) 50.9 (37.2, 71.8) 29.1 (18.5, 59.2) <0.001 
 REM AHI (events/h) 16.5 (5.8, 31.9) 34.9 (17.3, 52.0) 60.0 (38.6, 74.7) 30.0 (15.8, 54.7) <0.001 
 Non-REM AHI (events/h) 4.1 (2.5, 8.0) 18.8 (11.6, 24.0) 50.8 (34.8, 76.5) 27.7 (15.1, 61.1) <0.001 
 3% ODI (events/h) 5.5 (2.8, 8.6) 15.4 (11.5, 18.8) 38.4 (26.8, 56.0) 20.6 (9.7, 36.7) <0.001 
 4% ODI (events/h) 3.0 (1.6, 6.1) 10.0 (7.7, 13.2) 27.9 (14.9, 50.0) 11.7 (6.6, 26.9) <0.001 
 Microarousal index (events/h) 12.9 (9.3, 19.6) 20.6 (16.1, 27.4) 34.5 (27.3, 51.3) 26.9 (16.7, 52.6) <0.001 
 T90 (%) 0.8 (0.1, 3.4) 5.0 (1.2, 13.4) 15.4 (4.8, 41.4) 4.7 (1.7, 17.8) <0.001 
No OSA/untreated mild OSA (n = 61)Untreated moderate OSA (n = 47)Untreated severe OSA (n = 72)Treated OSA (n = 41)P value*
Demographics      
 Age (years) 53.0 ± 10.2 55.8 ± 8.3 55.3 ± 7.8 53.9 ± 8.1 0.306 
 Men 16 (26.2) 26 (55.3) 58 (80.6) 27 (65.9) <0.001 
Race/ethnicity     0.593 
 White 28 (45.9) 28 (59.6) 39 (54.2) 27 (65.9)  
 Black 23 (37.7) 16 (34.0) 22 (30.6) 11 (26.8)  
 Hispanic (any) 2 (3.3) 2 (4.3) 6 (8.3) 1 (2.4)  
 Asian 4 (6.6) 1 (2.1) 4 (5.6) 1 (2.4)  
 American Indian 1 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Mixed 3 (4.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 1 (2.4)  
Diabetes at screening 14 (23.0) 10 (21.3) 25 (34.7) 10 (24.4) 0.305 
Weight (kg) 94.8 ± 16.6 101.5 ± 16.9 106.9 ± 18.5 108.6 ± 19.3 <0.001 
Waist (cm) 106.7 ± 12.7 112.7 ± 12.2 114.7 ± 12.9 117.3 ± 13.1 <0.001 
WHR 0.9 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m234.0 ± 5.3 34.7 ± 5.4 35.3 ± 5.5 36.6 ± 5.9 0.130 
Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m247 (77.0) 37 (78.7) 56 (78.9) 36 (87.8) 0.573 
Systolic BP (mmHg) 121.8 ± 13.9 128.7 ± 13.6 128.4 ± 12.4 128.1 ± 12.3 0.012 
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 74.5 ± 11.0 77.7 ± 12.0 78.6 ± 9.8 77.1 ± 9.3 0.158 
HbA1c (%) 5.8 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 5.8 ± 0.3 0.326 
ESS score 8.8 ± 5.3 7.7 ± 3.7 8.6 ± 4.7 8.6 ± 4.3 0.628 
Sleepy (Epworth >10) 23 (37.7) 17 (36.2) 27 (37.5) 15 (36.6) 0.998 
CPAP adherent 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 41 (100.0) <0.001 
CPAP use in subset adherent to CPAP (h/night) (n = 41) — — — 6.2 ± 1.1 NA 
Actigraphy measurements      
 Sleep time (h) 6.83 ± 0.82 6.59 ± 0.88 6.26 ± 1.12 6.70 ± 0.74 0.004 
 Activity duration (min) 974 ± 55 1,041 ± 208 991 ± 69 986 ± 49 0.015 
 Percent immobility 20.2 ± 8.6 19.1 ± 9.1 21.9 ± 8.9 19.1 ± 8.6 0.254 
 Total activity count 227,485 ± 76,012 247,953 ± 78,135 225,467 ± 78,741 231,039 ± 70,177 0.426 
 Activity (counts/min) 233 ± 77 244 ± 78 226 ± 79 234 ± 68 0.673 
PSG measurements      
 Total recording time (min) 449.0 ± 39.9 463.1 ± 35.2 458.8 ± 37.4 439.1 ± 66.9 0.048 
 Total sleep time (min) 370.3 ± 62.0 361.3 ± 68.1 361.0 ± 67.2 344.1 ± 96.9 0.362 
 Sleep efficiency (%) 85.0 (76.7, 91.0) 84.7 (70.0, 87.9) 82.1 (73.9, 89.1) 82.9 (70.7, 90.4) 0.356 
 REM sleep (%) 19.2 (15.8, 23.7) 19.3 (15.7, 25.1) 16.5 (11.0, 20.0) 12.1 (5.0, 19.2) <0.001 
 N3 sleep (%) 17.6 (10.1, 24.0) 14.1 (11.1, 22.2) 6.6 (1.0, 13.9) 9.3 (2.0, 17.0) <0.001 
 AHI (events/h) 8.6 (3.7, 12.5) 22.0 (16.9, 26.6) 50.9 (37.2, 71.8) 29.1 (18.5, 59.2) <0.001 
 REM AHI (events/h) 16.5 (5.8, 31.9) 34.9 (17.3, 52.0) 60.0 (38.6, 74.7) 30.0 (15.8, 54.7) <0.001 
 Non-REM AHI (events/h) 4.1 (2.5, 8.0) 18.8 (11.6, 24.0) 50.8 (34.8, 76.5) 27.7 (15.1, 61.1) <0.001 
 3% ODI (events/h) 5.5 (2.8, 8.6) 15.4 (11.5, 18.8) 38.4 (26.8, 56.0) 20.6 (9.7, 36.7) <0.001 
 4% ODI (events/h) 3.0 (1.6, 6.1) 10.0 (7.7, 13.2) 27.9 (14.9, 50.0) 11.7 (6.6, 26.9) <0.001 
 Microarousal index (events/h) 12.9 (9.3, 19.6) 20.6 (16.1, 27.4) 34.5 (27.3, 51.3) 26.9 (16.7, 52.6) <0.001 
 T90 (%) 0.8 (0.1, 3.4) 5.0 (1.2, 13.4) 15.4 (4.8, 41.4) 4.7 (1.7, 17.8) <0.001 

Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (25th, 75th percentile). BP, blood pressure; N3, stage 3 of non–rapid eye movement sleep; NA, not applicable; ODI, oxygen desaturation index; REM, rapid eye movement.

*

ANOVA for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

CPAP adherence defined as self-report of using CPAP ≥4 h on ≥5 nights per week.

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