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Table 2

Unadjusted metabolic outcomes on the basis of OSA severity categories

All (N = 221)No OSA/untreated mild OSA (n = 61)Untreated moderate OSA (n = 47)Untreated severe OSA (n = 72)Treated OSA (n = 41)P value
Hyperglycemic clamp variables       
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 109.80 ± 9.94 107.74 ± 11.49 110.79 ± 9.02 110.67 ± 8.56 110.20 ± 10.58 0.295 
 Fasting C-peptide (ng/dL) 3.68 ± 1.43 3.29 ± 1.13 3.66 ± 1.10 3.89 ± 1.80 3.88 ± 1.31 0.071 
 Steady-state insulin (μU/mL) 85.63 (21.29, 344.33) 75.94 (18.52, 311.44) 88.23 (22.38, 347.93) 84.77 (20.67, 347.65) 99.48 (27.83, 355.67) 0.267 
 Steady-state C-peptide (ng/dL) 12.59 ± 4.88 11.81 ± 4.33 12.47 ± 3.51 12.80 ± 6.00 13.54 ± 4.74 0.350 
 M/I (mg/kg/min/pg/L) 40.45 (9.67, 169.15) 49.9 (12.9, 192.94) 38.09 (8.59, 168.95) 38.09 (8.76, 165.67) 34.81 (9.18, 132) 0.051 
 ACPRg (ng/dL) 2.86 (1.07, 7.61) 2.97 (1.23, 7.19) 2.97 (1.21, 7.33) 2.77 (0.89, 8.64) 2.72 (1.13, 6.57) 0.745 
 ACPRmax (ng/dL) 14.44 (6.1, 34.21) 13.74 (5.58, 33.84) 14.01 (5.69, 34.52) 14.88 (6.28, 35.25) 15.49 (7.35, 32.62) 0.529 
OGTT variables       
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 111.05 ± 11.53 108.36 ± 12.26 114.00 ± 13.10 111.08 ± 10.74 111.62 ± 9.05 0.089 
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 14.44 (4.82, 43.28) 11.59 (4.35, 30.88) 15.49 (5.07, 47.33) 15.64 (4.92, 49.72) 15.96 (5.65, 45.1) 0.005 
 2-h glucose (mg/dL) 179.85 ± 39.41 179.48 ± 44.61 179.72 ± 34.03 180.25 ± 35.74 179.85 ± 44.24 1.000 
 G-iAUC (mg/dL) 10,670.3 ± 4,341.6 10,915.8 ± 4,540.4 9,637.8 ± 3,843.1 11,031.7 ± 4,139.8 10,818.4 ± 4,857.7 0.353 
 C-peptide index (ng/mg) 6.75 (2.34, 19.46) 6.36 (2.39, 16.95) 7.17 (2.91, 17.67) 6.75 (1.93, 23.67) 6.75 (2.49, 18.35) 0.745 
 Insulinogenic index (μU/mg) 85.63 (21.29, 344.33) 77.48 (22.54, 266.35) 91.84 (23.75, 355.1) 85.63 (17.16, 427.18) 91.84 (26.71, 315.7) 0.588 
 HOMA-IR (mIU/mmol) 3.94 (1.21, 12.76) 3.06 (1.04, 9.01) 4.31 (1.28, 14.52) 4.26 (1.29, 14.09) 4.39 (1.47, 13.17) 0.003 
All (N = 221)No OSA/untreated mild OSA (n = 61)Untreated moderate OSA (n = 47)Untreated severe OSA (n = 72)Treated OSA (n = 41)P value
Hyperglycemic clamp variables       
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 109.80 ± 9.94 107.74 ± 11.49 110.79 ± 9.02 110.67 ± 8.56 110.20 ± 10.58 0.295 
 Fasting C-peptide (ng/dL) 3.68 ± 1.43 3.29 ± 1.13 3.66 ± 1.10 3.89 ± 1.80 3.88 ± 1.31 0.071 
 Steady-state insulin (μU/mL) 85.63 (21.29, 344.33) 75.94 (18.52, 311.44) 88.23 (22.38, 347.93) 84.77 (20.67, 347.65) 99.48 (27.83, 355.67) 0.267 
 Steady-state C-peptide (ng/dL) 12.59 ± 4.88 11.81 ± 4.33 12.47 ± 3.51 12.80 ± 6.00 13.54 ± 4.74 0.350 
 M/I (mg/kg/min/pg/L) 40.45 (9.67, 169.15) 49.9 (12.9, 192.94) 38.09 (8.59, 168.95) 38.09 (8.76, 165.67) 34.81 (9.18, 132) 0.051 
 ACPRg (ng/dL) 2.86 (1.07, 7.61) 2.97 (1.23, 7.19) 2.97 (1.21, 7.33) 2.77 (0.89, 8.64) 2.72 (1.13, 6.57) 0.745 
 ACPRmax (ng/dL) 14.44 (6.1, 34.21) 13.74 (5.58, 33.84) 14.01 (5.69, 34.52) 14.88 (6.28, 35.25) 15.49 (7.35, 32.62) 0.529 
OGTT variables       
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 111.05 ± 11.53 108.36 ± 12.26 114.00 ± 13.10 111.08 ± 10.74 111.62 ± 9.05 0.089 
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL) 14.44 (4.82, 43.28) 11.59 (4.35, 30.88) 15.49 (5.07, 47.33) 15.64 (4.92, 49.72) 15.96 (5.65, 45.1) 0.005 
 2-h glucose (mg/dL) 179.85 ± 39.41 179.48 ± 44.61 179.72 ± 34.03 180.25 ± 35.74 179.85 ± 44.24 1.000 
 G-iAUC (mg/dL) 10,670.3 ± 4,341.6 10,915.8 ± 4,540.4 9,637.8 ± 3,843.1 11,031.7 ± 4,139.8 10,818.4 ± 4,857.7 0.353 
 C-peptide index (ng/mg) 6.75 (2.34, 19.46) 6.36 (2.39, 16.95) 7.17 (2.91, 17.67) 6.75 (1.93, 23.67) 6.75 (2.49, 18.35) 0.745 
 Insulinogenic index (μU/mg) 85.63 (21.29, 344.33) 77.48 (22.54, 266.35) 91.84 (23.75, 355.1) 85.63 (17.16, 427.18) 91.84 (26.71, 315.7) 0.588 
 HOMA-IR (mIU/mmol) 3.94 (1.21, 12.76) 3.06 (1.04, 9.01) 4.31 (1.28, 14.52) 4.26 (1.29, 14.09) 4.39 (1.47, 13.17) 0.003 

Data are mean ± SD or geometric mean (95% CI). P values represent comparisons across the four groups by ANOVA, using native scale data for normally distributed variables or log-transformed data otherwise.

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