Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with familial versus sporadic type 1 diabetes

Sporadic, N = 53,606Familial
All, N = 3,765Patient first, N = 948Relative first, N = 2,122Unknown first, N = 695
Demographics at onset of disease      
 Age, years 9.7 (6.1; 12.8) 7.9 (4.3; 11.5) 6.5 (3.4; 10.0) 8.5 (4.9; 12.0) 8.1 (4.3; 11.5) 
 Time between onset in first and second relative, years — 6.0 (2.3;13.2) 3.3 (1.3;6.5) 8.4 (3.3; 19.5) — 
 Male sex 28,894 (53.9) 2,003 (53.2) 491 (51.8) 1,157 (54.5) 355 (51.1) 
 Migration background 10,405 (19.4) 806 (21.4) 244 (25.7) 446 (21.0) 116 (16.7) 
Metabolism at onset of disease      
 Blood glucose, mg/dL 417 (307; 544) 390 (281; 521) 442 (331; 568) 366 (267; 494) 393 (273; 520) 
 Blood glucose, mmol 23.1 (17.0; 30.2) 21.6 (15.6; 28.9) 24.5 (18.4; 31.5) 20.3 (14.8; 27.4) 21.8 (15.1; 28.8) 
 Blood pH 7.35 (7.26; 7.39) 7.38 (7.33; 7.40) 7.35 (7.24; 7.40) 7.38 (7.35; 7.41) 7.38 (7.34; 7.41) 
 Diabetic ketoacidosis 8,430 (20.4) 367 (11.9) 180 (24.1) 136 (7.5) 51 (9.6) 
 HbA1c, % 11.1 (9.6; 12.8) 9.7 (8.3; 11.4) 10.7 (9.4; 12.4) 9.3 (8.0; 10.8) 9.6 (8.2; 11.3) 
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 98 (81; 116) 83 (67; 101) 94 (79; 112) 78 (64; 95) 82 (66; 100) 
Associated autoimmune diseases      
 All 7,274 (13.6) 630 (16.7) 194 (20.5) 337 (15.9) 99 (14.2) 
 Thyroid disease 5,355 (10.0) 438 (11.6) 141 (14.9) 230 (10.8) 67 (9.6) 
 Celiac disease 2,246 (4.2) 235 (6.2) 63 (6.7) 133 (6.3) 39 (5.6) 
 Addison disease 27 (0.05) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 
Treatment regimen and metabolic control during the first treatment year      
 1–3 insulin injections per day 10,276 (19.2) 578 (15.4) 217 (22.9) 257 (12.1) 104 (15.0) 
 ≥4 insulin injections per day 33,541 (62.6) 2,024 (53.8) 510 (53.8) 1,141 (53.8) 373 (53.7) 
 Insulin pump therapy 9,788 (18.3) 1,163 (30.9) 221 (23.3) 724 (34.1) 218 (31.4) 
 Insulin dose, IU/kg/day 0.6 (0.4; 0.8) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 0.6 (0.4; 0.8) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 
 HbA1c, % 7.2 (6.5; 8.0) 7.1 (6.5 ; 7.9) 7.2 (6.5; 7.9) 7.1 (6.5; 7.9) 7.1 (6.5; 7.9) 
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 55 (47; 64) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 
 IDAA1c* 9.7 (8.6; 11.0) 9.5 (8.5; 10.7) 9.7 (8.7; 10.9) 9.4 (8.5; 10.6) 9.5 (8.4; 10.7) 
 IDAA1c at least once ≤9 32,263 (61.2) 2,390 (64.1) 553 (59.0) 1,399 (66.5) 438 (64.0) 
 SMBG frequency per day, mean ± SD 5.5 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.2 5.8 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.3 6.0 ± 2.1 
 BMI, SD score 0.1 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.1 (–0.4; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.4; 0.9) 
Sporadic, N = 53,606Familial
All, N = 3,765Patient first, N = 948Relative first, N = 2,122Unknown first, N = 695
Demographics at onset of disease      
 Age, years 9.7 (6.1; 12.8) 7.9 (4.3; 11.5) 6.5 (3.4; 10.0) 8.5 (4.9; 12.0) 8.1 (4.3; 11.5) 
 Time between onset in first and second relative, years — 6.0 (2.3;13.2) 3.3 (1.3;6.5) 8.4 (3.3; 19.5) — 
 Male sex 28,894 (53.9) 2,003 (53.2) 491 (51.8) 1,157 (54.5) 355 (51.1) 
 Migration background 10,405 (19.4) 806 (21.4) 244 (25.7) 446 (21.0) 116 (16.7) 
Metabolism at onset of disease      
 Blood glucose, mg/dL 417 (307; 544) 390 (281; 521) 442 (331; 568) 366 (267; 494) 393 (273; 520) 
 Blood glucose, mmol 23.1 (17.0; 30.2) 21.6 (15.6; 28.9) 24.5 (18.4; 31.5) 20.3 (14.8; 27.4) 21.8 (15.1; 28.8) 
 Blood pH 7.35 (7.26; 7.39) 7.38 (7.33; 7.40) 7.35 (7.24; 7.40) 7.38 (7.35; 7.41) 7.38 (7.34; 7.41) 
 Diabetic ketoacidosis 8,430 (20.4) 367 (11.9) 180 (24.1) 136 (7.5) 51 (9.6) 
 HbA1c, % 11.1 (9.6; 12.8) 9.7 (8.3; 11.4) 10.7 (9.4; 12.4) 9.3 (8.0; 10.8) 9.6 (8.2; 11.3) 
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 98 (81; 116) 83 (67; 101) 94 (79; 112) 78 (64; 95) 82 (66; 100) 
Associated autoimmune diseases      
 All 7,274 (13.6) 630 (16.7) 194 (20.5) 337 (15.9) 99 (14.2) 
 Thyroid disease 5,355 (10.0) 438 (11.6) 141 (14.9) 230 (10.8) 67 (9.6) 
 Celiac disease 2,246 (4.2) 235 (6.2) 63 (6.7) 133 (6.3) 39 (5.6) 
 Addison disease 27 (0.05) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) 
Treatment regimen and metabolic control during the first treatment year      
 1–3 insulin injections per day 10,276 (19.2) 578 (15.4) 217 (22.9) 257 (12.1) 104 (15.0) 
 ≥4 insulin injections per day 33,541 (62.6) 2,024 (53.8) 510 (53.8) 1,141 (53.8) 373 (53.7) 
 Insulin pump therapy 9,788 (18.3) 1,163 (30.9) 221 (23.3) 724 (34.1) 218 (31.4) 
 Insulin dose, IU/kg/day 0.6 (0.4; 0.8) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 0.6 (0.4; 0.8) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 0.5 (0.4; 0.7) 
 HbA1c, % 7.2 (6.5; 8.0) 7.1 (6.5 ; 7.9) 7.2 (6.5; 7.9) 7.1 (6.5; 7.9) 7.1 (6.5; 7.9) 
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 55 (47; 64) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 55 (48; 63) 
 IDAA1c* 9.7 (8.6; 11.0) 9.5 (8.5; 10.7) 9.7 (8.7; 10.9) 9.4 (8.5; 10.6) 9.5 (8.4; 10.7) 
 IDAA1c at least once ≤9 32,263 (61.2) 2,390 (64.1) 553 (59.0) 1,399 (66.5) 438 (64.0) 
 SMBG frequency per day, mean ± SD 5.5 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.2 5.8 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.3 6.0 ± 2.1 
 BMI, SD score 0.1 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.1 (–0.4; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.5; 0.8) 0.2 (–0.4; 0.9) 

Data are median (quartiles) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. SMBG, self-monitoring of blood glucose.

*

IDAA1c calculated as HbA1c (%) + [4 × insulin dose (units/kg/24 h)]; a value ≤9% indicates partial remission period.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal