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Table 3

Results of crude and adjusted subdistribution HR models of time to first insulin prescription

All PPDMPPDM-APPDM-C
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Model 1 3.38 (3.24–3.52) <0.0001 2.44 (2.30–2.60) <0.0001 5.00 (4.72–5.29) <0.0001 
Model 2 3.17 (3.04–3.31) <0.0001 2.42 (2.27–2.57) <0.0001 4.41 (4.17–4.67) <0.0001 
Model 3 3.28 (3.15–3.43) <0.0001 2.51 (2.27–2.67) <0.0001 4.46 (4.22–4.72) <0.001 
Model 4 3.10 (2.96–3.23) <0.001 2.45 (2.30–2.61) <0.001 4.30 (4.05–4.56) <0.001 
All PPDMPPDM-APPDM-C
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Model 1 3.38 (3.24–3.52) <0.0001 2.44 (2.30–2.60) <0.0001 5.00 (4.72–5.29) <0.0001 
Model 2 3.17 (3.04–3.31) <0.0001 2.42 (2.27–2.57) <0.0001 4.41 (4.17–4.67) <0.0001 
Model 3 3.28 (3.15–3.43) <0.0001 2.51 (2.27–2.67) <0.0001 4.46 (4.22–4.72) <0.001 
Model 4 3.10 (2.96–3.23) <0.001 2.45 (2.30–2.61) <0.001 4.30 (4.05–4.56) <0.001 

End point was time to insulin after diabetes diagnosis. Subdistribution HRs of the competing risk regression analysis are shown with 95% CI and P values. Type 2 diabetes HR was set as the denominator. Model 1 represents unadjusted ratios. Model 2 is adjusted for sex and age. Model 3 is additionally adjusted for year of diabetes diagnosis, and model 4 is multiple adjustment for sex, age, year of diabetes diagnosis, Charlson index, smoking, alcohol, and obesity.

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