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Table 1

Baseline characteristics by 30-year total CVD incidence status and HbA1c trajectory

Low HbA1cHigh HbA1c
CVD incidence (n = 156)No CVD (n = 254)HR (95% CI)P valueCVD incidence (n = 97)No CVD (n = 29)HR (95% CI)P value
Age, years 31.4 (6.7) 24.6 (6.9) 1.115 (1.091, 1.140) <0.0001 28.0 (7.5) 21.8 (7.9) 1.123 (1.090, 1.158) <0.0001 
T1D duration, years 23.0 (6.9) 16.5 (6.3) 1.115 (1.091, 1.140) <0.0001 19.8 (8.0) 13.4 (6.8) 1.125 (1.092, 1.158) <0.0001 
Female sex, % 54.5 (85) 51.0 (132) 1.010 (0.737, 1.385) 0.9516 40.2 (39) 34.5 (10) 1.062 (0.705, 1.599) 0.7742 
HbA1c, % 8.2 (1.2) 8.5 (1.4) 0.878 (0.773, 0.998) 0.0459 9.5 (1.5) 10.0 (2.1) 1.012 (0.898, 1.141) 0.8395 
HbA1c, mmol/mol 66.0 (12.9) 69.7 (15.0) 0.988 (0.977, 1.000) 0.0459 80.6 (16.9) 85.7 (22.8) 1.001 (0.990, 1.012) 0.8395 
BMI, kg/m2 24.1 (3.2) 23.2 (3.2) 1.084 (1.033, 1.139) 0.0011 23.9 (3.3) 23.0 (3.8) 1.062 (1.000, 1.127) 0.0481 
Insulin dose, units/kg 0.74 (0.24) 0.81 (0.23) 0.360 (0.167, 0.773) 0.0088 0.82 (0.26) 0.90 (0.30) 0.132 (0.049, 0.359) <0.0001 
≥3 insulin injections/day or pump, % 11.2 (17/152) 7.0 (17/242) 1.404 (0.847, 2.327) 0.1883 5.2 (5) 0 (0) 1.127 (0.456, 2.783) 0.7958 
Hypoglycemia requiring assistance, % 46.7 (71) 37.8 (91) 1.295 (0.941, 1.781) 0.1124 46.8 (44) 25.0 (7) 1.350 (0.892, 2.045) 0.1560 
eGDR, mg/kg/min 7.9 (1.9) 8.5 (1.5) 0.787 (0.719, 0.861) <0.0001 6.8 (1.9) 7.1 (1.8) 0.829 (0.742, 0.925) 0.0008 
Non-HDLc, mg/dL 144.4 (42.6) 120.3 (32.1) 1.013 (1.009, 1.016) <0.0001 153.1 (39.1) 135.2 (48.3) 1.009 (1.005, 1.014) <0.0001 
HDLc, mg/dL 53.8 (11.8) 55.8 (12.6) 0.986 (0.973, 1.000) 0.0487 51.8 (11.7) 53.1 (12.8) 0.985 (0.968, 1.003) 0.0939 
Triglycerides, mg/dL 88 (64, 127) 71 (54, 95) 2.128 (1.613, 2.807)* <0.0001 101 (72, 160) 84.5 (68, 135) 1.465 (1.029, 2.086)* 0.0339 
Lipid-lowering medications, % 1.3 (2) 0 (0) 19.783 (4.766, 82.124) <0.0001 1.0 (1) 0 (0) 0.799 (0.111, 5.757) 0.8236 
Systolic BP, mmHg 116.0 (15.5) 108.4 (11.8) 1.036 (1.026, 1.046) <0.0001 117.1 (15.8) 109.3 (9.7) 1.038 (1.023, 1.052) <0.0001 
Diastolic BP, mmHg 74.4 (12.3) 70.0 (9.2) 1.043 (1.027, 1.059) <0.0001 74.3 (11.1) 71.8 (8.7) 1.042 (1.022, 1.063) <0.0001 
BP-lowering medications, % 13.8% (21) 3.7% (9) 3.678 (2.311, 5.854) <0.0001 12.5% (12) 3.6% (1) 7.566 (3.804, 15.049) <0.0001 
White blood cell count, × 109/L 6.8 (1.9) 6.1 (1.6) 1.253 (1.157, 1.358) <0.0001 7.2 (2.2) 6.6 (1.9) 1.118 (1.024, 1.219) 0.0123 
AER, µg/min 30.9 (8.5, 306.8) 10.1 (6.1, 25.7) 1.316 (1.222, 1.418)* <0.0001 24.3 (9.2, 337) 20.2 (9.0, 60) 1.363 (1.215, 1.533)* <0.0001 
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 95.4 (30.0) 108.2 (26.7) 0.985 (0.980, 0.990) <0.0001 108.3 (29.2) 117.8 (34.6) 0.989 (0.983, 0.995) 0.0005 
Ever smoker, % 46.2 (72) 26.4 (67) 2.103 (1.534, 2.882) <0.0001 45.4 (44) 34.5 (10) 1.992 (1.318, 3.010) 0.0011 
Current smoker, % 25.0 (39) 14.6 (37) 1.782 (1.239, 2.562) 0.0018 35.1 (34) 25.6 (8) 1.637 (1.070, 2.505) 0.0230 
Family history of MI, % 26.4 (39/148) 11.3 (27/238) 2.193 (1.517, 3.171) <0.0001 16.0 (15) 18 (5) 1.565 (0.893, 2.743) 0.1179 
Low HbA1cHigh HbA1c
CVD incidence (n = 156)No CVD (n = 254)HR (95% CI)P valueCVD incidence (n = 97)No CVD (n = 29)HR (95% CI)P value
Age, years 31.4 (6.7) 24.6 (6.9) 1.115 (1.091, 1.140) <0.0001 28.0 (7.5) 21.8 (7.9) 1.123 (1.090, 1.158) <0.0001 
T1D duration, years 23.0 (6.9) 16.5 (6.3) 1.115 (1.091, 1.140) <0.0001 19.8 (8.0) 13.4 (6.8) 1.125 (1.092, 1.158) <0.0001 
Female sex, % 54.5 (85) 51.0 (132) 1.010 (0.737, 1.385) 0.9516 40.2 (39) 34.5 (10) 1.062 (0.705, 1.599) 0.7742 
HbA1c, % 8.2 (1.2) 8.5 (1.4) 0.878 (0.773, 0.998) 0.0459 9.5 (1.5) 10.0 (2.1) 1.012 (0.898, 1.141) 0.8395 
HbA1c, mmol/mol 66.0 (12.9) 69.7 (15.0) 0.988 (0.977, 1.000) 0.0459 80.6 (16.9) 85.7 (22.8) 1.001 (0.990, 1.012) 0.8395 
BMI, kg/m2 24.1 (3.2) 23.2 (3.2) 1.084 (1.033, 1.139) 0.0011 23.9 (3.3) 23.0 (3.8) 1.062 (1.000, 1.127) 0.0481 
Insulin dose, units/kg 0.74 (0.24) 0.81 (0.23) 0.360 (0.167, 0.773) 0.0088 0.82 (0.26) 0.90 (0.30) 0.132 (0.049, 0.359) <0.0001 
≥3 insulin injections/day or pump, % 11.2 (17/152) 7.0 (17/242) 1.404 (0.847, 2.327) 0.1883 5.2 (5) 0 (0) 1.127 (0.456, 2.783) 0.7958 
Hypoglycemia requiring assistance, % 46.7 (71) 37.8 (91) 1.295 (0.941, 1.781) 0.1124 46.8 (44) 25.0 (7) 1.350 (0.892, 2.045) 0.1560 
eGDR, mg/kg/min 7.9 (1.9) 8.5 (1.5) 0.787 (0.719, 0.861) <0.0001 6.8 (1.9) 7.1 (1.8) 0.829 (0.742, 0.925) 0.0008 
Non-HDLc, mg/dL 144.4 (42.6) 120.3 (32.1) 1.013 (1.009, 1.016) <0.0001 153.1 (39.1) 135.2 (48.3) 1.009 (1.005, 1.014) <0.0001 
HDLc, mg/dL 53.8 (11.8) 55.8 (12.6) 0.986 (0.973, 1.000) 0.0487 51.8 (11.7) 53.1 (12.8) 0.985 (0.968, 1.003) 0.0939 
Triglycerides, mg/dL 88 (64, 127) 71 (54, 95) 2.128 (1.613, 2.807)* <0.0001 101 (72, 160) 84.5 (68, 135) 1.465 (1.029, 2.086)* 0.0339 
Lipid-lowering medications, % 1.3 (2) 0 (0) 19.783 (4.766, 82.124) <0.0001 1.0 (1) 0 (0) 0.799 (0.111, 5.757) 0.8236 
Systolic BP, mmHg 116.0 (15.5) 108.4 (11.8) 1.036 (1.026, 1.046) <0.0001 117.1 (15.8) 109.3 (9.7) 1.038 (1.023, 1.052) <0.0001 
Diastolic BP, mmHg 74.4 (12.3) 70.0 (9.2) 1.043 (1.027, 1.059) <0.0001 74.3 (11.1) 71.8 (8.7) 1.042 (1.022, 1.063) <0.0001 
BP-lowering medications, % 13.8% (21) 3.7% (9) 3.678 (2.311, 5.854) <0.0001 12.5% (12) 3.6% (1) 7.566 (3.804, 15.049) <0.0001 
White blood cell count, × 109/L 6.8 (1.9) 6.1 (1.6) 1.253 (1.157, 1.358) <0.0001 7.2 (2.2) 6.6 (1.9) 1.118 (1.024, 1.219) 0.0123 
AER, µg/min 30.9 (8.5, 306.8) 10.1 (6.1, 25.7) 1.316 (1.222, 1.418)* <0.0001 24.3 (9.2, 337) 20.2 (9.0, 60) 1.363 (1.215, 1.533)* <0.0001 
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 95.4 (30.0) 108.2 (26.7) 0.985 (0.980, 0.990) <0.0001 108.3 (29.2) 117.8 (34.6) 0.989 (0.983, 0.995) 0.0005 
Ever smoker, % 46.2 (72) 26.4 (67) 2.103 (1.534, 2.882) <0.0001 45.4 (44) 34.5 (10) 1.992 (1.318, 3.010) 0.0011 
Current smoker, % 25.0 (39) 14.6 (37) 1.782 (1.239, 2.562) 0.0018 35.1 (34) 25.6 (8) 1.637 (1.070, 2.505) 0.0230 
Family history of MI, % 26.4 (39/148) 11.3 (27/238) 2.193 (1.517, 3.171) <0.0001 16.0 (15) 18 (5) 1.565 (0.893, 2.743) 0.1179 

Values in boldface indicate significance <0.05.

*

Natural log transformed prior to modeling. Data are mean (SD), median (p25, p75), % (n), or % (n in category/total n with available data).

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