Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Clinical and metabolic characteristics of the study population, EPIC-Norfolk 1995– 1997 (n = 6,223)

CharacteristicMenWomenP
n 2759 3464  
Age (years) 59.2 ± 9.2 58.6 ± 9.3 0.013 
BMI (kg/m226.6 ± 3.3 26.2 ± 4.3 <0.001 
WHR 0.93 ± 0.056 0.79 ± 0.061  
Positive family history of diabetes 321 (12) 465 (13) 0.038 
Physical activity index    
 Level 1 (lowest) 1,035 (37) 1,413 (41) <0.001 
 Level 2 901 (33) 1,311 (38)  
 Level 3 511 (19) 498 (14)  
 Level 4 312 (11) 242 (7)  
Smoking history    
 Never smoked 933 (34) 1,947 (56) <0.001 
 Ex-smoker 1,471 (53) 1,137 (33)  
 Current smoker 355 (13) 380 (11)  
HbA1c (%) 5.35 ± 0.704 5.31 ± 0.632 0.007 
Total energy intake (kcal) 2,206 ± 619 1,937 ± 548 <0.001 
Carbohydrate* 47 ± 6.7 48 ± 6.4 <0.001 
 Sugars (g/day) 139 ± 54 130 ± 48 <0.001 
 Starch (g/day) 127 ± 44 111 ± 39 <0.001 
 Nonstarch polysaccharides (g/day) 18.0 ± 6.4 19.0 ± 6.8 <0.001 
Protein* 16 ± 2.8 17 ± 3.1 <0.001 
Total fat* 33 ± 5.8 32 ± 6.0 <0.001 
 Saturated fat 12.9 ± 3.4 12.2 ± 3.4 <0.001 
 Monounsaturated fat* 11.9 ± 2.4 11.1 ± 2.4 <0.001 
 Polyunsaturated fat* 6.0 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 1.9 0.016 
P:S ratio 0.50 ± 0.228 0.52 ± 0.216 0.016 
CharacteristicMenWomenP
n 2759 3464  
Age (years) 59.2 ± 9.2 58.6 ± 9.3 0.013 
BMI (kg/m226.6 ± 3.3 26.2 ± 4.3 <0.001 
WHR 0.93 ± 0.056 0.79 ± 0.061  
Positive family history of diabetes 321 (12) 465 (13) 0.038 
Physical activity index    
 Level 1 (lowest) 1,035 (37) 1,413 (41) <0.001 
 Level 2 901 (33) 1,311 (38)  
 Level 3 511 (19) 498 (14)  
 Level 4 312 (11) 242 (7)  
Smoking history    
 Never smoked 933 (34) 1,947 (56) <0.001 
 Ex-smoker 1,471 (53) 1,137 (33)  
 Current smoker 355 (13) 380 (11)  
HbA1c (%) 5.35 ± 0.704 5.31 ± 0.632 0.007 
Total energy intake (kcal) 2,206 ± 619 1,937 ± 548 <0.001 
Carbohydrate* 47 ± 6.7 48 ± 6.4 <0.001 
 Sugars (g/day) 139 ± 54 130 ± 48 <0.001 
 Starch (g/day) 127 ± 44 111 ± 39 <0.001 
 Nonstarch polysaccharides (g/day) 18.0 ± 6.4 19.0 ± 6.8 <0.001 
Protein* 16 ± 2.8 17 ± 3.1 <0.001 
Total fat* 33 ± 5.8 32 ± 6.0 <0.001 
 Saturated fat 12.9 ± 3.4 12.2 ± 3.4 <0.001 
 Monounsaturated fat* 11.9 ± 2.4 11.1 ± 2.4 <0.001 
 Polyunsaturated fat* 6.0 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 1.9 0.016 
P:S ratio 0.50 ± 0.228 0.52 ± 0.216 0.016 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

Percentage of total energy intake;

total fat includes glycerol (not shown) and saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal