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Table 2—

Primary outcome measures for the monitoring and standard care conditions

MeasuresMonitoring group (n = 191)Standard care group (n = 101/209)Adjusted differencePES
NWB      
 Baseline 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 3.1 (2.4–3.8)    
 Visit 2 3.1 (2.7–3.5) —    
 Follow-up* 2.6 (2.3–2.9) 3.5 (3.0–3.9) 0.9 (0.1–1.2) 0.002 0.29 
ENE      
 Baseline 7.2 (6.7–7.6) 7.2 (6.5–7.9)    
 Visit 2 7.5 (7.0–8.0) —    
 Follow-up* 7.6 (7.3–7.9) 7.0 (6.5–7.5) 0.6 (0.0–1.2) 0.045 0.18 
PWB      
 Baseline 8.0 (7.6–8.4) 7.7 (7.1–8.3)    
 Visit 2 7.9 (7.5–8.3) —    
 Follow-up* 8.5 (8.2–8.8) 7.9 (7.4–8.4) 0.6 (0.0–1.1) 0.057 0.20 
GWB      
 Baseline 23.9 (22.8–25.0) 23.8 (22.1–25.6)    
 Visit 2 24.2 (23.1–25.4) —    
 Follow-up* 25.1 (24.4–25.8) 22.9 (21.8–23.9) 2.2 (0.9–3.5) 0.001 0.29 
Mental health      
 Baseline — —    
 Follow-up 73.4 (71.2–75.6) 67.6 (64.0–71.1) 5.8 (1.7–10.0) 0.006 — 
Quality of care, physician      
 Baseline 47.7 (45.6–49.7) 50.1 (47.3–52.9)    
 Follow-up* 47.5 (45.8–49.2) 45.5 (43.2–47.8) 2.0 (−0.8–4.9) 0.165 0.17 
Quality of care, diabetes nurse      
 Baseline 51.5 (49.2–53.8) 50.9 (47.8–54.1)    
 Follow-up* 49.5 (47.7–51.2) 47.1 (44.7–49.4) 2.4 (−0.5–5.3) 0.105 0.22 
HbA1c      
 Baseline 7.8 (7.6–8.0) 7.8 (7.7–8.0)    
 Visit 2 7.8 (7.6–8.0) 7.7 (7.5–7.9)    
 Follow-up* 7.7 (7.6–7.9) 7.7 (7.6–7.9) 0.0 (−0.2–0.2) 0.819 0.00 
MeasuresMonitoring group (n = 191)Standard care group (n = 101/209)Adjusted differencePES
NWB      
 Baseline 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 3.1 (2.4–3.8)    
 Visit 2 3.1 (2.7–3.5) —    
 Follow-up* 2.6 (2.3–2.9) 3.5 (3.0–3.9) 0.9 (0.1–1.2) 0.002 0.29 
ENE      
 Baseline 7.2 (6.7–7.6) 7.2 (6.5–7.9)    
 Visit 2 7.5 (7.0–8.0) —    
 Follow-up* 7.6 (7.3–7.9) 7.0 (6.5–7.5) 0.6 (0.0–1.2) 0.045 0.18 
PWB      
 Baseline 8.0 (7.6–8.4) 7.7 (7.1–8.3)    
 Visit 2 7.9 (7.5–8.3) —    
 Follow-up* 8.5 (8.2–8.8) 7.9 (7.4–8.4) 0.6 (0.0–1.1) 0.057 0.20 
GWB      
 Baseline 23.9 (22.8–25.0) 23.8 (22.1–25.6)    
 Visit 2 24.2 (23.1–25.4) —    
 Follow-up* 25.1 (24.4–25.8) 22.9 (21.8–23.9) 2.2 (0.9–3.5) 0.001 0.29 
Mental health      
 Baseline — —    
 Follow-up 73.4 (71.2–75.6) 67.6 (64.0–71.1) 5.8 (1.7–10.0) 0.006 — 
Quality of care, physician      
 Baseline 47.7 (45.6–49.7) 50.1 (47.3–52.9)    
 Follow-up* 47.5 (45.8–49.2) 45.5 (43.2–47.8) 2.0 (−0.8–4.9) 0.165 0.17 
Quality of care, diabetes nurse      
 Baseline 51.5 (49.2–53.8) 50.9 (47.8–54.1)    
 Follow-up* 49.5 (47.7–51.2) 47.1 (44.7–49.4) 2.4 (−0.5–5.3) 0.105 0.22 
HbA1c      
 Baseline 7.8 (7.6–8.0) 7.8 (7.7–8.0)    
 Visit 2 7.8 (7.6–8.0) 7.7 (7.5–7.9)    
 Follow-up* 7.7 (7.6–7.9) 7.7 (7.6–7.9) 0.0 (−0.2–0.2) 0.819 0.00 

Data are means (95% CI). Means at follow-up and mean differences at follow-up were adjusted for

*

corresponding baseline scores or

GWB at baseline using ANCOVA.

Calculation of GWB: 12 − NWB + ENE + PWB.

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