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Table 1—

Platelet function in type 1 and type 2 diabetes and IR

Platelet responseIRType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes
Antiaggregatory activity of insulin (human platelets) ↓(42, 62)  ↓(42) 
Antiaggregatory activity of NO (human platelets) ↓(43)  ↓(43) 
Antiaggregatory activity of prostacyclin (human platelets) ↓(62) ↓(63)  
cGMP response to NO (human platelets) ↓(44) ↓(45) ↓(44, 49) 
cNOS activity (human platelets)  ↓(46, 47) ↓(46, 47) 
iNOS activity (human platelets)  ↑(48) ↑(48) 
Prostacyclin binding (human platelets)  → (38) → (38) 
Antiaggregatory activity of HDL (streptozotocin rat model)  ↓(50)  
Thrombin-induced PI hydrolysis (human platelets)  ↓(41) ↑(52–54) 
Thrombin-induced PI hydrolysis (streptozotocin rat model)  ↑(51)  
Thromboxane synthesis (human platelets)  ↑(55) ↑(57) 
Thromboxane receptor sensitivity (human platelets)  ↑(56)  
Arachidonic acid uptake (human platelets and streptozotocin rat model)  ↑(58)  
Aggregation in response to LDL (human platelets)  ↑(59, 61)  
Release of PAI-1 (human platelets)   ↑(60) 
Platelet responseIRType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes
Antiaggregatory activity of insulin (human platelets) ↓(42, 62)  ↓(42) 
Antiaggregatory activity of NO (human platelets) ↓(43)  ↓(43) 
Antiaggregatory activity of prostacyclin (human platelets) ↓(62) ↓(63)  
cGMP response to NO (human platelets) ↓(44) ↓(45) ↓(44, 49) 
cNOS activity (human platelets)  ↓(46, 47) ↓(46, 47) 
iNOS activity (human platelets)  ↑(48) ↑(48) 
Prostacyclin binding (human platelets)  → (38) → (38) 
Antiaggregatory activity of HDL (streptozotocin rat model)  ↓(50)  
Thrombin-induced PI hydrolysis (human platelets)  ↓(41) ↑(52–54) 
Thrombin-induced PI hydrolysis (streptozotocin rat model)  ↑(51)  
Thromboxane synthesis (human platelets)  ↑(55) ↑(57) 
Thromboxane receptor sensitivity (human platelets)  ↑(56)  
Arachidonic acid uptake (human platelets and streptozotocin rat model)  ↑(58)  
Aggregation in response to LDL (human platelets)  ↑(59, 61)  
Release of PAI-1 (human platelets)   ↑(60) 

↓, Decreased; ↑, increased; →, no change. Reference numbers are given in parentheses. NOS, constitutive nitric oxide synthetase; iNOS, inducible NOS.

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